Category Archives: Telecom Info

Video Codecs – H264 , H265 , AV1

MPEG 2

MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as defined by the ITU)
generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information
combination of lossy video compression and lossy audio data compression methods, which permit storage and transmission of movies using currently available storage media and transmission bandwidth.

better than MPEG 1

evolved out of the shortcomings of MPEG-1 such as audio compression system limited to two channels (stereo) , No standardized support for interlaced video with poor compression , Only one standardized “profile” (Constrained Parameters Bitstream), which was unsuited for higher resolution video.

Application

over-the-air digital television broadcasting and in the DVD-Video standard.
TV stations, TV receivers, DVD players, and other equipment
MOD and TOD – recording formats for use in consumer digital file-based camcorders.
XDCAM – professional file-based video recording format.
DVB – Application-specific restrictions on MPEG-2 video in the DVB standard:

H264

Advanced Video Coding (AVC), or H.264 or aka MPEG-4 AVC or ITU-T H.264 / MPEG-4 Part 10 ‘Advanced Video Coding’ (AVC)
introduced in 2004

Better than MPEG2

40-50% bit rate reduction compared to MPEG-2

Support Up to 4K (4,096×2,304) and 59.94 fps
21 profiles ; 17 levels

Compression Model

Video compression relies on predicting motion between frames. It works by comparing different parts of a video frame to find the ones that are redundant within the subsequent frames ie not changed such as background sections in video. These areas are replaced with a short information, referencing the original pixels(intraframe motion prediction) using mathematical function and direction of motion

Hybrid spatial-temporal prediction model
Flexible partition of Macro Block(MB), sub MB for motion estimation
Intra Prediction (extrapolate already decoded neighboring pixels for prediction)
Introduced multi-view extension
9 directional modes for intra prediction
Macro Blocks structure with maximum size of 16×16
Entropy coding is CABAC(Context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding) and CAVLC(Context-adaptive variable-length coding )

Applications

most deployed video compression standard
delivers high definition video images over direct-broadcast satellite-based television services,
digital storage media and Blu-Ray disc formats,
Terrestrial, Cable, Satellite and Internet Protocol television (IPTV)
security and survillance systems and DVB
mobile video, media players, video chat

H265

High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), or H.265 or MPEG-H HEVC
video compression standard designed to substantially improve coding efficiency
stream high-quality videos in congested network environments or bandwidth constrained mobile networks
Jan 2013
product of collaboration between the ITU Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG).

better than H264

overcome shortage of bandwidth, spectrum, storage
bandwidth savings of approx. 45% over H.264 encoded content

resolutions up to 8192×4320, including 8K UHD
Supports up to 300 fps
3 approved profiles, draft for additional 5 ; 13 levels
Whereas macroblocks can span 4×4 to 16×16 block sizes, CTUs can process as many as 64×64 blocks, giving it the ability to compress information more efficiently.

multiview encoding – stereoscopic video coding standard for video compression that allows for the efficient encoding of video sequences captured simultaneously from multiple camera angles in a single video stream. It also packs a large amount of inter-view statistical dependencies.

Compression Model

Enhanced Hybrid spatial-temporal prediction model
CTU ( coding tree units) supporting larger block structure (64×64) with more variable sub partition structures

Motion Estimation – Intra prediction with more nodes, asymmetric partitions in Inter Prediction)
Individual rectangular regions that divide the image are independent

Paralleling processing computing – decoding process can be split up across multiple parallel process threads, taking advantage multi-core processors.

Wavefront Parallel Processing (WPP)- sort of decision tree that grants a more productive and effectual compression.
33 directional nodes – DC intra prediction , planar prediction. , Adaptive Motion Vector Prediction
Entropy coding is only CABAC

Applications

cater to growing HD content for multi platform delivery
differentiated and premium 4K content

reduced bitrate enables broadcasters and OTT vendors to bundle more channels / content on existing delivery mediums
also provide greater video quality experience at same bitrate

Using ffmpeg for H265 encoding

I took a h264 file (640×480) , duration 30 seconds of size 39,08,744 bytes (3.9 MB on disk) and converted using ffnpeg

After conversion it was a HEVC (Parameter Sets in Bitstream) , MPEG-4 movie – 621 KB only !!! without any loss of clarity.

> ffmpeg -i pivideo3.mp4 -c:v libx265 -crf 28 -c:a aac -b:a 128k output.mp4                                              ffmpeg version 4.1.4 Copyright (c) 2000-2019 the FFmpeg developers   built with Apple LLVM version 10.0.1 (clang-1001.0.46.4)   configuration: --prefix=/usr/local/Cellar/ffmpeg/4.1.4_2 --enable-shared --enable-pthreads --enable-version3 --enable-avresample --cc=clang --host-cflags='-I/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/adoptopenjdk-12.0.1.jdk/Contents/Home/include -I/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/adoptopenjdk-12.0.1.jdk/Contents/Home/include/darwin' --host-ldflags= --enable-ffplay --enable-gnutls --enable-gpl --enable-libaom --enable-libbluray --enable-libmp3lame --enable-libopus --enable-librubberband --enable-libsnappy --enable-libtesseract --enable-libtheora --enable-libvorbis --enable-libvpx --enable-libx264 --enable-libx265 --enable-libxvid --enable-lzma --enable-libfontconfig --enable-libfreetype --enable-frei0r --enable-libass --enable-libopencore-amrnb --enable-libopencore-amrwb --enable-libopenjpeg --enable-librtmp --enable-libspeex --enable-videotoolbox --disable-libjack --disable-indev=jack --enable-libaom --enable-libsoxr   libavutil      56. 22.100 / 56. 22.100   libavcodec     58. 35.100 / 58. 35.100   libavformat    58. 20.100 / 58. 20.100   libavdevice    58.  5.100 / 58.  5.100   libavfilter     7. 40.101 /  7. 40.101   libavresample   4.  0.  0 /  4.  0.  0   libswscale      5.  3.100 /  5.  3.100   libswresample   3.  3.100 /  3.  3.100   libpostproc    55.  3.100 / 55.  3.100 Input #0, mov,mp4,m4a,3gp,3g2,mj2, from 'pivideo3.mp4':   Metadata:     major_brand     : isom     minor_version   : 1     compatible_brands: isomavc1     creation_time   : 2019-06-23T04:58:13.000000Z   Duration: 00:00:29.84, start: 0.000000, bitrate: 1047 kb/s     Stream #0:0(und): Video: h264 (High) (avc1 / 0x31637661), yuv420p, 640x480, 1046 kb/s, 25 fps, 25 tbr, 25k tbn, 50k tbc (default)     Metadata:       creation_time   : 2019-06-23T04:58:13.000000Z       handler_name    : h264@GPAC0.5.2-DEV-revVersion: 0.5.2-426-gc5ad4e4+dfsg5-3+deb9u1 Codec AVOption b (set bitrate (in bits/s)) specified for output file #0 (output.mp4) has not been used for any stream. The most likely reason is either wrong type (e.g. a video option with no video streams) or that it is a private option of some encoder which was not actually used for any stream. Stream mapping:   Stream #0:0 -> #0:0 (h264 (native) -> hevc (libx265)) Press [q] to stop, [?] for help x265 [info]: HEVC encoder version 3.1.2+1-76650bab70f9 x265 [info]: build info [Mac OS X][clang 10.0.1][64 bit] 8bit+10bit+12bit x265 [info]: using cpu capabilities: MMX2 SSE2Fast LZCNT SSSE3 SSE4.2 AVX FMA3 BMI2 AVX2 x265 [info]: Main profile, Level-3 (Main tier) x265 [info]: Thread pool created using 4 threads x265 [info]: Slices                              : 1 x265 [info]: frame threads / pool features       : 2 / wpp(8 rows) x265 [warning]: Source height < 720p; disabling lookahead-slices x265 [info]: Coding QT: max CU size, min CU size : 64 / 8 x265 [info]: Residual QT: max TU size, max depth : 32 / 1 inter / 1 intra x265 [info]: ME / range / subpel / merge         : hex / 57 / 2 / 3 x265 [info]: Keyframe min / max / scenecut / bias: 25 / 250 / 40 / 5.00 x265 [info]: Lookahead / bframes / badapt        : 20 / 4 / 2 x265 [info]: b-pyramid / weightp / weightb       : 1 / 1 / 0 x265 [info]: References / ref-limit  cu / depth  : 3 / off / on x265 [info]: AQ: mode / str / qg-size / cu-tree  : 2 / 1.0 / 32 / 1 x265 [info]: Rate Control / qCompress            : CRF-28.0 / 0.60 x265 [info]: tools: rd=3 psy-rd=2.00 early-skip rskip signhide tmvp b-intra x265 [info]: tools: strong-intra-smoothing deblock sao Output #0, mp4, to 'output.mp4':   Metadata:     major_brand     : isom     minor_version   : 1     compatible_brands: isomavc1     encoder         : Lavf58.20.100     Stream #0:0(und): Video: hevc (libx265) (hev1 / 0x31766568), yuv420p, 640x480, q=2-31, 25 fps, 12800 tbn, 25 tbc (default)     Metadata:       creation_time   : 2019-06-23T04:58:13.000000Z       handler_name    : h264@GPAC0.5.2-DEV-revVersion: 0.5.2-426-gc5ad4e4+dfsg5-3+deb9u1       encoder         : Lavc58.35.100 libx265 frame=  746 fps= 64 q=-0.0 Lsize=     606kB time=00:00:29.72 bitrate= 167.2kbits/s speed=2.56x     video:594kB audio:0kB subtitle:0kB other streams:0kB global headers:2kB muxing overhead: 2.018159% x265 [info]: frame I:      3, Avg QP:27.18  kb/s: 1884.53  x265 [info]: frame P:    179, Avg QP:27.32  kb/s: 523.32   x265 [info]: frame B:    564, Avg QP:35.17  kb/s: 38.69    x265 [info]: Weighted P-Frames: Y:5.6% UV:5.0% x265 [info]: consecutive B-frames: 1.6% 3.8% 9.3% 53.3% 31.9%  encoded 746 frames in 11.60s (64.31 fps), 162.40 kb/s, Avg QP:33.25

if you get error like

Unknown encoder 'libx265'

then reinstall ffmpeg with h265 support

AV1

Realtime High quality video encoder
product of product of the Alliance for Open Media (AOM)
Contained by Matroska , WebM , ISOBMFF , RTP (WebRTC)

better than H265

AV1 is royalty free and overcomes the patent complexities around H265/HVEC

Applications

Video transmission over internet , voip , multi conference
Virtual / Augmented reality
self driving cars streaming
intended for use in HTML5 web video and WebRTC together with the Opus audio format


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NLP ( Natural Language Processing ) in VoIP

NLP ( Natural Language Processing ) can be defined as the automatic manipulation of natural languages ( text or audio) using computer algorithms and softwares. As such NLP has great potential in cognitive and artificial intelligence , but also with increasing human to machine interaction and enhancement in Machine learning ,NLP is set to revolutionize the Voice over IP space.

Note : although not obvious but some people confuse Natural language procession with Neurolinguistic pressing which is a science in Psychology.

NLP evolves from linguistics which itself is a study of language along with its semantics , phonetics and gramer. Every language has rules and NLP uses mathematical formulation to understand it. Discrete mathematical formalisms will be discussed later in this article.

Inputs for NLP is usually though conversation, speech, correspondence, reading, print, written composition, dictation, publishing, translation, lip reading, signing etc .

Rule based vs Statistical NLP – In contrast to rule based engines which work on hard preset values using maybe a decision tree , statistical models work in a more probabilistic fashion which produces more reliable results even in unfamiliar scenarios.

Linear classifier vs Convolutional Neural Nets– CNNs are powerful supervised deep learning technique. As opposed to a linear classifier whose decision boundary on feature space is linear function , CNN increases model complexity by adding more layers . tbd-

NLP tasks

Syntax

Grammer induction , lemmitization , morphological segmentation , part of speech tagging , parsing , sentence breaking , stemming , word segmentation , terminology extraction

Semantics

lexical , distributional , machine translation , Named entity recognition ( NER) , natural language understanding and generation, relationship establishment , sentimental analysis , work sense disambiguation , OCR( optical Character recognition) , recognizing textual entailment

Speech

speech recognition , specch segmentation , text to speech , dialogues

Discourse

automatic summarizations , conference resolution , discourse analysis

Key techniques

Out of above its worthy to point out few key techniques

Parts of speech (POS )

A primary tasks in NLP is to extract tokens and sentences, identify parts of speech ( like nouns , verbs , adjectives ) and create parse trees.

POS tagging is the process of marking up a word in a corpus to a corresponding part of a speech tag . By tagging, algorithm builds lemmatizers which are used to reduce a word to its root form.

POS methods significantly differs from Bag-of-words(BOW) methods which disregards semantic relation relationship and only takes into account words and their frequencies. Whereas POS takes context and definition into consideration.

POS tagging techniques include lexical , rule based , probablistic and deep learning methods.

Named entity recognition (NER)

Given a stream of text, determine which items in the text map to proper names, such as people or places, and their types such as person, location, Organization. Example for raw test as below using Spacy.io

“Hello ! My name is Atanai and I work on Solution design and architecture, developed many custom WebRTC and SIP based solutions such as telecom applications, media stream inetgration into IOT,Unified communication-collaboration ,signalling gateways ,SBC etc. I passed out from Anna university with Betch degree in 2011 and currenlty stay in Bangalore India.”

Analysis of NER is

Noun phrases: ['My name', 'Atanai', 'I', 'Solution design', 'architecture', 'many custom', 'WebRTC and SIP based solutions', 'telecom applications', 'media stream integration', 'IOT', 'Unified communication-collaboration', 'signalling gateways', 'I', 'Anna university', 'Betch degree', 'currently stay', 'Bangalore India'] 
Verbs: ['be', 'work', 'develop', 'base', 'signal', 'pass'] 
Atanai PERSON 
WebRTC PRODUCT 
SIP ORG 
IOT ORG 
Betch NORP 
2011 DATE 
Bangalore India LOC

Sentiment Analysis

Understand the overall opinion, feeling, or attitude expressed in given media ( speech , text or video) .

NLP in action

NLP application layout

Steps to obtain insights and relevant information from an unclassified document , raw tex file or speech to text content such as recording from VOIP meeting

step 1 : upload a document which could be an invoice , order , feedback , complaint or any other unstructured raw text

Step 2 : Collect the data from the document

  • use OCR (optical character recognition) for hand written or signed components
  • perform search , index , duplication detection etc
  • can use MNIST database as
  • phrase matching and vocabulary
  • Can use translation APIs to trans late from other languages

Step 3 : Collect meaning-full data

  • perform Part of Speech (POS) tagging and chunking process
  • topic discovery and modelling
  • tokenizations and text classification , obtain domain specific entities from the document
  • can use standard model language to collect relevant frequently used words
  • NER ( Named Entity recognition ) to validate names , places and locations
  • can extract out time and date from mentioned entities
  • build relationship graphs

step 4 : extract sentiments using a trained model

  • utilize Regular Expressions for pattern searching
  • sentiment analysis

General Applications:

Application of NLP find its way into many domains

1.VOIP platforms ,media servers and automatic summarization of conference / meetings like “Minutes of Meetings” to highlight the key takeaways from a VOIP session

2. Automatic essay assessment and scripting in education setting alike.

3. Image annotation using metadata describing digital images for categorizations and easy retrieval based on keywords.

4. Spam filtering

5. Building automatic assistants and chatbots with Speech Recognition and using auto suggest with sentence completion ( Siri , Alexa , google voice etc )

6. Social Media Analytics , to track sentiments about topic , figure out influencers such as for movie or restaurant reviews .

NLP in VOIP system

To know more about sound waves go here which describes fundamental characteristics of analog waves . To know more about analog wave modulation go here , this describes how waves are modulated such as frequency , phase , amplitude etc to hold information for propagation . click here to know more about digital wave modulation such as amplitude , frequency , phase shift keying etc . This section build on top of audio streams captured or live .

Classifying Call recordings

Sound waves bear multiple features such as

  • Pitch – frequency of a sound wave  ,

Frequencies from 20 to 20000 Hz are audible to the human ear , while dogs can hear 50 to 45000 Hz , Freq < 20Hz – infra sound Freq > 20000 Hz – ultra sound

  • Loud – amplitude of sound wave
  • Amplitude, Frequency, Wavelength And Timbre
  • statistical – Mean, Variance, Skewness
  • zero-crossing rate (ZCR) – number of times in a sound sample that the amplitude of the sound wave changes sign
  • root-mean-square (RMS) –
  • Spectral Centroid
  • Spectral Irregularity
  • Spectral Flatness
  • Spectral Tonality
  • Spectral Crest
  • Spectral Slope
  • Spectral Rolloff
  • Spectral Loudness
  • Spectral Pitch
  • Harmonic Odd Even Ratio
  • Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC)
  • Bark Scale etc

Based on NLP and trained models on extracted features ,an unknown audio wave can be classified and possibly identified.

Replacing auto attendants with IVR

tbd–

Ref :

Tools ref:

Hosted IP-PBX and its SBC

SBC ( Session Borde Controllers ) are basically gateways that provide interconnectivity between the hosted IP-PBX of the enterprise to the outside world endpoints such as telco service provider, PSTN/ TDM , SIP trunking providers or even third party OTT provider apps like skype for business etc.

If you have a hosted IPPBX or PBX in your data-centre or on premise and you need controlled but heavy outflowing traffic, it is a good idea to integrate a resilient and efficient SBC to provide seamless interconnectivity.

Hosted PBX

For an enterprises such as an Trading floor or warehouse with multiple phone types , softphones , hardphones , turrets etc distributed across various geographies and zones a device agnostic architectural setup is prime . Listing the essentials for setting up such a system. Note supplementary services are data-services , logging , licensing etc are important but kept out of scope to keep focus on functional aspects .

An enterprise application usually is structured in tiers or layers

  • Client tier – the networks clients communication to the central java programs . Runs on client machines
  • web tier – state full communication between client and business tier . Runs in server machine.
  • business tier- handles the logic of the application. The business tier uses the Enterprise Java Bean (EJB) container, which manages the execution of the beans
  • data tier – encompasses DB drivers . Runs on separate machines for database storage

Event services for Line status notifications

providers lines status notification across enterprise for inter zone and softphone to hardphone .

Routing services

routing calls within enterprise and hardphone sites read more about resource zones later in the article

Call Control Manager (CCM)

consolidated set of all service and component that make up the VOIP platform besides media handlers . It includes SIP adapters , bridge managers , call processing frameworks , API frameworks , healthchecks etc .

Call processing framework ( CPF)

signalling and call routing logic , mostly in SIP and trunks . Manages identities such as Call Line information , Called Party Information , line status etc in shared memory.

Multiple shared Lines and their statuses

Incases where there is a need to process multiple calls from a single User agent device such as a softphone or hardphone ( common scenario for a turret phone) , the design involves assigning it multiple sip uris and each sip uri will establish a line.

When caller calls callee , the line is said to be BUSY , otherwise said to be IDLE. Transition of a shared sip line from IDLE to BUSY is transmitted to others via SIP PUBLISH as other UAs holding the same sip

Similarly any other event like transfer is propagated to other via SIP UPDATE

Clustering Call control managers (CCM)

A Call Communication manager (CCM) from various zones should be able to cowork on call and session management and advanced features such as routing from home guest zone to home zone , call transfer , refer , barge etc. Designing a clustered setup will also provide elasticity , fail-over and high availability. Can use clustered , HA compliant framework such as Oracle Communication Application Server , suited for enterprise level deployments.

Call Replication and distributed memory management

A node will store two types of data: active sessions and passive sessions. The active sessions are used by the node and stored in cache. The passive sessions are the replicas from the other nodes’ active sessions. The passives sessions are stored on a persistent storage.

Controlling Line Calls using AOR and Resource Zones

When dealing with many SIP endpoints , now referred to as resource, it is best to assign the resources to their respective zones. Thus a resource’s status updates will be only updated by its active resource zone while can be read by any resource zone.

Incoming request Zone vs Active Resource Zone

For an Incoming request such a INVITE , check whether the zone sending the request is its active resource zone or not .If the Active Resource Zone is the same zone on which the INVITE came in, then the call is handled by that zone. If the Active Resource Zone is a different zone, then the call needs to be forwarded to the Active Resource Zone.

Bridges for Local Media connections

Although call signalling is handled by a resources active resource zone only, we can still create media bridges in local zone of the resource .

Local MM bridges are used to auto answer an incoming sip line call and create trunk , especially from hardphones which do not support provisional responses.

Interzone proxy Handler

proxies call control messages between active and non active resource zones. Primarily mapping the sip messages with all custom headers inbetween the communication device interfaces.

Dial Trunk using multiple dedicated sip lines and connect via Media Bridge

To save up on call routing /connection time and to support te ability to add as many users on call at runtime , a dedicated media bridge is established for every call.

  • A sip line activated is auto-answered by MM , creates a trunk and waits for other endpoint to join the bridge. The flow is as follows :
  • As INVITE arrives for an IDLE sip line , it is connected to a trunk and auto answered by a local MM bridge .
  • Since the call is already answered , when caller dials number for callee , collect the DTMF digits over RTP using RFC 2833 DTMF events.
  • Run inter-digit timer for digit collection and detect end of dialing on timeout.
  • The dialed trunk connection is made and call is added to media bridge
  • When provisional responses are received on the trunk connection, generate in-band call progress tones (ringing, proceeding etc) via the MM
  • When the line answers, the progress tones have to be stopped and the called party gets bridged to the calling party via the media bridge.

Call Diversion involves forwarding calls from zone to another zone. joinjed parties get call UPDATE status and forward response .

Call barge is the processing of joining an ongoing call . The barge event is usually propagated to joined parities via SIP INFO. Private lines do not allow barge in and are exclusively reserved for only few users.

Interconnectivity provided by an SBC ( Session Border Controller)

Hold-Resume and Music on Hold in multi-line evironment

While a regular p2p call involves simple reinvite based hold and resume with varrying SDP, the scenario is slightly more detailed for hold resume on bridged trunk connection , as explained below.

As the calls made are on bridge , a hold signal involves a RE-INIVITE with held-SDP to media manager (MM). If hold status on trunk is 200 OK the hold status will be sent to other call interfaces connected on the trunk. Else if hold is denied ,403 is sent back to hold-initiates.

Music on hold is an one way RTP mostly from media server.

For a bridged scenarios , separate Music on hold bridges are kept on Media Managers. When an UA has to hold , it is removed from original bridge and place on music on hold bridge . To be unhold/ resume it is placed back into the orignal bridge from music on hold bridge .

Conference

user initiates conference, the conference feature can execute on the zone where the user was logged on, irrespective of zones where the other conference attendees join from . The Call processing framework of originators zone completes the SDP exchange to establish two-way speech path among all the parties.

Incases there are multiple connections from a zone , a local MM conference bridge can be created for them which would connect back to originators MM conf bridge . this two part conf bridge will be transparent to the sip line sand users .

For provisioning inputs and settings setup a Diagnostics , Administration and Configuration platform which can process APIs for data services , licences , alarms or do remote device control such as using SNMP

Session Border Controllers (SBC)

At network level SBC operations include

  • bridging multiple interfaces in different networks even between the IPv4 and IPv6 networks
  • auto NAT discovery and STUN
  • protocol conversion such as TLS to UDP etc
  • Flood detection and IP filtering

For SIP specific functionalities , SBC does

  • SIP validation involving checks on syntax and message contents also consistency checks are performed.
  • stateful and call aware. tracing, monitoring and checking for validitya and health of all the SIP messages
  • Topology hiding
  • Traffic filtering
  • Codec filtering , reordering , media pinning, transcoding, or call recording
  • Data replication brings High Availability (HA) with hot backups or even Active-Active solutions.

Traffic sharing and routing roles of SBC can include

  • IP-based and Digest-based authentication
  • limiting traffic by number of concurrent calls or calling rate.
  • Dialplan and/or Custom routing
  • Dispatching/Load-balancing to a backend cluster of servers

SBC’s can be physical hardware boxes or software based applications, as the name suggests their purpose is to control the session at border between the enterprise and external service provider.

SIP to PSTN – SIP is an IP protocol whereas PSTN is a TDM one , achieving interoperability is also the KRA of an SBC

SIP trunking – SBC provide a secure sip connectivity to connect calls to sip trunks which provide bulk calls functionality at a flat pricing.

support for various fixed or mobile endpoints – SBC ensure they are RFC compliant and can extend SIP to any kind of telecom endpoint like PSTN , GSM, fax , Skype , sipphone , IP phones etc.

NAT / Network address translator – To meet the packet routing challenges across a firewall or even during private -public mapping. A combo of DHCP servers and NAT provider comes very handy to reroute or perform hole punching such that signalling and media packets are not dropped and meet the required endpoint. More about NAT here – NAT traversal using STUN and TURN.

Load balancing – Reverse proxies and Load balancers is a much adopted industry practise to mask the inner IPs of the VoIP platform and also route traffic appropriately between control and media server .

Security , QoS and Regulatory compliance – since SBCs are required to typically support a large array of clients they adhere to regulatory and industry accepted standards ,which also involves security features like AAA, TLS/SSL and other means for quality of assurance like logging and fault detection, preventing DDoS etc . In many cases SBC can also encrypt / decrypt RTP streams for probing , tapping or lawful inspection .

Terminating at carriers , PSTN and IP gateways

Additional SBC features

Inaddition to above it is good to have if an SBC provides extra features like forking , emergency number dialing ( 911 ) or active directory integration . Real Time Analysis and monitoring of call and metrics are also expected from a SBC since they reside on edge of the network and are more vulnerable to threats . For example Dialogic Mediant SBC’s and gateways , Audio Codes SBCs

With the shift from on premise PBXs to cloud based VM or microservice architecture , SBC vendors adopt a lager umbrella of services also including automation scripts for checks , reporting tools / consoles , developer friendly APIs to manage sessions via SBC and even WebRTC gateways to connect browser endpoints .

Usage Scenarios

Any VOIP dependant system which deals with bulksome voice / video traffic from external endpoints is a usages scenarios. Listing few

  • Contact Call centres
  • Remote work / offsite monitoring
  • CRM solution for sales/marketing
  • Connecting webrtc click to dial from webpage to enterprise representatives
  • connecting enterprise UCC clients to PSTN endpoints

There are many more.

RealTime Transport protocol (RTP) and RTP control protocol (RTCP )

In a VOIP system, where SIP is a signaling protocol , a SIP proxy never participates in the media flow, thus it is media agnostic.

SDP packets describing a session with codecs , open ports , media formats etc are embedded in a SIP request such as invite .
Post a SDP Offer/Answer flow , RTP and RTCP esnsure that mediastream flow between the endpoints .

RTP is the provides end-to-end network transport functions suitable for applications transmitting real-time data, such as audio, video or simulation data, over multicast or unicast network services.

RTCP is the control protocl which provides monitoring of the data delivery, qos in a manner scalable to large multicast networks, and to provide minimal control and identification functionality.

RTP

protocol framework
supports use of RTP-level translators and mixers.
independent of the underlying transport and network layers.
does not address resource reservation
does not guarantee quality-of-service for real-time services.
services like payload type identification, sequence numbering, timestamping and delivery monitoring.

The sequence numbers included in RTP allow the receiver to reconstruct the sender’s packet sequence,

Usage :
Multimedia Multi particpant conferences
Storage of continuous data
Interactive distributed simulation
active badge, control and measurement applications

UDP provides best-effort delivery of datagrams for point-to-point as well as for multicast communications.

SRTP

Provides confidentiality, message authentication, and replay protection for both unicast and multicast RTP and RTCP streams.
security layer which resides between the RTP/RTCP application layer and the transport layer
cryptographic context includes includes

  • session key , used directly in encryption/message authentication
  • master key ,a securely exchanged random bit string used to derive session keys
  • other working session parameters ( master key lifetime, master key identifier and length, FEC parameters, etc)
    it must be maintained by both the sender and receiver of these streams.

RTP Session

In an RTP session, each particpant maintains a full, separate space of SSRC identifiers. The set of participants included in one RTP session consists of those that can receive an SSRC identifier transmitted by any one of the participants either in RTP as the SSRC or a CSRC or in RTCP.

Real-Time Transport Protocol
    [Stream setup by SDP (frame 554)]
        [Setup frame: 554]
        [Setup Method: SDP]
    10.. .... = Version: RFC 1889 Version (2)
    ..0. .... = Padding: False
    ...0 .... = Extension: False
    .... 0000 = Contributing source identifiers count: 0
    0... .... = Marker: False
    Payload type: ITU-T G.711 PCMU (0)
    Sequence number: 39644
    [Extended sequence number: 39644]
    Timestamp: 2256601824
    Synchronization Source identifier: 0x78006c62 (2013293666)
    Payload: 7efefefe7efefe7e7efefe7e7efefe7e7efefe7e7efefe7e...

Synchronization source (SSRC)

32-bit numeric SSRC identifier for source of a stream of RTP packets.
All packets from a synchronization source form part of the same timing and sequence number space, so a receiver groups packets by synchronization source for playback.

the binding of the SSRC identifiers is provided through RTCP.
If a participant generates multiple streams in one RTP session, for example from separate video cameras, each MUST be identified as a different SSRC.

Contributing source (CSRC)

A source of a stream of RTP packets that has contributed to the combined stream produced by an RTP mixer.
The mixer inserts a list of the SSRC identifiers of the sources , called CSRC list, that contributed to the generation of a particular packet into the RTP header of that packet.

An example application is audio conferencing where a mixer indicates all the talkers whose speech was combined to produce the outgoing packet, allowing the receiver to indicate the current talker, even though all the audio packets contain the same SSRC identifier (that of the mixer).

RTSP (Real-Time Streaming Protocol)

network control protocol
TCP to maintain an end-to-end connection
control real-time streaming media applications such as live audio and HD video streaming
establishes a media session between RTSP end-points ( can be RTSP media servers too) and initiates RTP streams to deliver the audio and video payload from the RTSP media servers to the clients.

RTCP (Real-Time Transport Control Protocol )

periodic transmission of control packet
monitor data deliver on large multicast networks
underlying protocol must provide multiplexing of the data and control packets
-provide feedback on the quality of the data distribution , congestion control , fault dialoginis , control of adaptive encodings
-carries a persistent transport-level identifier for an RTP source called the canonical name or CNAME , which is used to keep track of each participant
-observer number of particpants to rate of senidng packets for scaling up
-convey minimal session control information

Exmample of RTCP sender and receiver reports on transmission and reception statistics

Real-time Transport Control Protocol (Receiver Report)
    [Stream setup by SDP (frame 4)]
        [Setup frame: 4]
        [Setup Method: SDP]
    10.. .... = Version: RFC 1889 Version (2)
    ..0. .... = Padding: False
    ...0 0001 = Reception report count: 1
    Packet type: Receiver Report (201)
    Length: 7 (32 bytes)
    Sender SSRC: 0x796dd0d6 (2037240022)
    Source 1
        Identifier: 0x00000000 (0)
        SSRC contents
            Fraction lost: 0 / 256
            Cumulative number of packets lost: 1
        Extended highest sequence number received: 6534
            Sequence number cycles count: 0
            Highest sequence number received: 6534
        Interarrival jitter: 0
        Last SR timestamp: 0 (0x00000000)
        Delay since last SR timestamp: 0 (0 milliseconds)
Real-time Transport Control Protocol (Source description)
    [Stream setup by SDP (frame 4)]
        [Setup frame: 4]
        [Setup Method: SDP]
    10.. .... = Version: RFC 1889 Version (2)
    ..0. .... = Padding: False
    ...0 0001 = Source count: 1
    Packet type: Source description (202)
    Length: 6 (28 bytes)
    Chunk 1, SSRC/CSRC 0x796DD0D6
        Identifier: 0x796dd0d6 (2037240022)
        SDES items
            Type: CNAME (user and domain) (1)
            Length: 8
            Text: 796dd0d6
            Type: NOTE (note about source) (7)
            Length: 5
            Text: plivo
            Type: END (0)

Simulcast

client encodes the same audio/video stream twice in different resolutions and bitrates and sending these to a router who then decides who receives which of the streams.

Multicast Audio Conference

Assume obtaining a multicast group address and pair of ports. One port is used for audio data, and the other is used for control (RTCP) packets.
The audio conferencing application used by each conference participant sends audio data in small chunks of ms duration.
Each chunk of audio data is preceded by an RTP header; RTP header and data are in turn contained in a UDP packet.

The RTP header indicates what type of audio encoding (such as PCM, ADPCM or LPC) is contained in each packet so that senders can change the encoding during a conference, for example, to accommodate a new participant that is connected through a low-bandwidth link or react to indications of network congestion.

Every packet networks, occasionally loses and reorders packets and delays them by variable amounts of time. Thus RTP header contains timing information and a sequence number that allow the receivers to reconstruct the timing produced by the source.
The sequence number can also be used by the receiver to estimate how many packets are being lost.

For QoS, each instance of the audio application in the conference periodically multicasts a reception report plus the name of its user on the RTCP(control) port. The reception report indicates how well the current speaker is being received and may be used to control adaptive encodings. In addition to the user name, other identifying information may also be included subject to control bandwidth limits.

A site sends the RTCP BYE packet when it leaves the conference.

Audio and Video Conference

Audio and video media are transmitted as separate RTP sessions, separate RTP and RTCP packets are transmitted for each medium using two different UDP port pairs and/or multicast addresses. There is no direct coupling at the RTP level between the audio and video sessions, except that a user participating in both sessions should use the same distinguished (canonical) name in the RTCP packets for both so that the sessions can be associated.

Synchronized playback of a source’s audio and video is achieved using timing information carried in the RTCP packets

Layered Encodings

In conflicting bandwidth requirements of heterogeneous receivers, Multimedia applications should be able to adjust the transmission rate to match the capacity of the receiver or to adapt to network congestion.
Rate-adaptation should be done by a layered encoding with a layered transmission system.

In the context of RTP over IP multicast, the source can stripe the progressive layers of a hierarchically represented signal across multiple RTP sessions each carried on its own multicast group. Receivers can then adapt to network heterogeneity and control their reception bandwidth by joining only the appropriate subset of the multicast groups.

Mixers , Translators and Monitors

Mixer

An intermediate system that receives RTP packets from one or more sources, possibly changes the data format, combines the packets in some manner and then forwards a new RTP packet.

example of Mixer for hi-speed to low-speed packet stream conversion

In conference cases where few participants are connected through a low-speed link where other have hi-speed link, instead of forcing lower-bandwidth, reduced-quality audio encoding for all, an RTP-level relay called a mixer may be placed near the low-bandwidth area.
This mixer resynchronizes incoming audio packets to reconstruct the constant 20 ms spacing generated by the sender, mixes these reconstructed audio streams into a single stream, translates the audio encoding to a lower-bandwidth one and forwards the lower-bandwidth packet stream across the low-speed links.

All data packets originating from a mixer will be identified as having the mixer as their synchronization source.
The RTP header includes a means for mixers to identify the sources that contributed to a mixed packet so that correct talker indication can be provided at the receivers.

Translator

An intermediate system that forwards RTP packets with their synchronization source identifier intact.

Examples of translators include devices that convert encodings without mixing, replicators from multicast to unicast, and application-level filters in firewalls.

Tranasltor for Firewall Limiting IP packet pass

Some of the intended participants in the audio conference may be connected with high bandwidth links but might not be directly reachable via IP multicast, for reasons such as being behind an application-level firewall that will not let any IP packets pass. For these sites, mixing may not be necessary, in which case another type of RTP-level relay called a translator may be used.

Two translators are installed, one on either side of the firewall, with the outside one funneling all multicast packets received through asecure connection to the translator inside the firewall. The translator inside the firewall sends them again as multicast packets to a multicast group restricted to the site’s internal network.

Other cases :

video mixers can scales the images of individual people in separate video streams and composites them into one video stream to simulate a group scene.

Translator usage when connection of a group of hosts speaking only IP/UDP to a group of hosts that understand only ST-II, packet-by-packet encoding translation of video streams from individual sources without resynchronization or mixing.

Monitor

An application that receives RTCP packets sent by participants in an RTP session, in particular the reception reports, and estimates the current quality of service for distribution monitoring, fault diagnosis and long-term statistics.

Layered Encodings

In conflicting bandwidth requirements of heterogeneous receivers, Multimedia applications should be able to adjust the transmission rate to match the capacity of the receiver or to adapt to network congestion.
Rate-adaptation should be done by a layered encoding with a layered transmission system.

In the context of RTP over IP multicast, the source can stripe the progressive layers of a hierarchically represented signal across multiple RTP sessions each carried on its own multicast group. Receivers can then adapt to network heterogeneity and control their reception bandwidth by joining only the appropriate subset of the multicast groups.

RTP Session

In an RTP session, each particpant maintains a full, separate space of SSRC identifiers. The set of participants included in one RTP session consists of those that can receive an SSRC identifier transmitted by any one of the participants either in RTP as the SSRC or a CSRC or in RTCP.

Real-Time Transport Protocol
    [Stream setup by SDP (frame 554)]
        [Setup frame: 554]
        [Setup Method: SDP]
    10.. .... = Version: RFC 1889 Version (2)
    ..0. .... = Padding: False
    ...0 .... = Extension: False
    .... 0000 = Contributing source identifiers count: 0
    0... .... = Marker: False
    Payload type: ITU-T G.711 PCMU (0)
    Sequence number: 39644
    [Extended sequence number: 39644]
    Timestamp: 2256601824
    Synchronization Source identifier: 0x78006c62 (2013293666)
    Payload: 7efefefe7efefe7e7efefe7e7efefe7e7efefe7e7efefe7e...

Synchronization source (SSRC)

32-bit numeric SSRC identifier for source of a stream of RTP packets.
All packets from a synchronization source form part of the same timing and sequence number space, so a receiver groups packets by synchronization source for playback.

the binding of the SSRC identifiers is provided through RTCP.
If a participant generates multiple streams in one RTP session, for example from separate video cameras, each MUST be identified as a different SSRC.

Contributing source (CSRC)

A source of a stream of RTP packets that has contributed to the combined stream produced by an RTP mixer.
The mixer inserts a list of the SSRC identifiers of the sources , called CSRC list, that contributed to the generation of a particular packet into the RTP header of that packet. An example application is audio conferencing where a mixer indicates all the talkers whose speech was combined to produce the outgoing packet, allowing the receiver to indicate the current talker, even though all the audio packets contain the same SSRC identifier (that of the mixer).

RTCP

periodic transmission of control packet
underlying protocol must provide multiplexing of the data and control packets
– provide feedback on the quality of the data distribution , congestion control , fault diagnosis, control of adaptive encodings
– carries a persistent transport-level identifier for an RTP source called the canonical name or CNAME , which is used to keep track of each participant
– observer number of participants to rate of sending packets for scaling up
– convey minimal session control information

Components of RTCP based feedback

Status reports

  • contained in sender report (SR)/received report (RR) packets
  • transmitted at regular intervals as part of compound RTCP packets, can also contain SDES
  • overall indication for reception quality of media stream

FB messages

indicate loss or reception of particular pieces of a media stream

Example of RTCP sender and receiver reports on transmission and reception statistics

Real-time Transport Control Protocol (Receiver Report)
    [Stream setup by SDP (frame 4)]
        [Setup frame: 4]
        [Setup Method: SDP]
    10.. .... = Version: RFC 1889 Version (2)
    ..0. .... = Padding: False
    ...0 0001 = Reception report count: 1
    Packet type: Receiver Report (201)
    Length: 7 (32 bytes)
    Sender SSRC: 0x796dd0d6 (2037240022)
    Source 1
        Identifier: 0x00000000 (0)
        SSRC contents
            Fraction lost: 0 / 256
            Cumulative number of packets lost: 1
        Extended highest sequence number received: 6534
            Sequence number cycles count: 0
            Highest sequence number received: 6534
        Interarrival jitter: 0
        Last SR timestamp: 0 (0x00000000)
        Delay since last SR timestamp: 0 (0 milliseconds)
Real-time Transport Control Protocol (Source description)
    [Stream setup by SDP (frame 4)]
        [Setup frame: 4]
        [Setup Method: SDP]
    10.. .... = Version: RFC 1889 Version (2)
    ..0. .... = Padding: False
    ...0 0001 = Source count: 1
    Packet type: Source description (202)
    Length: 6 (28 bytes)
    Chunk 1, SSRC/CSRC 0x796DD0D6
        Identifier: 0x796dd0d6 (2037240022)
        SDES items
            Type: CNAME (user and domain) (1)
            Length: 8
            Text: 796dd0d6
            Type: NOTE (note about source) (7)
            Length: 5
            Text: plivo
            Type: END (0)

RTCP operation modes

  • Immediate Feedback mode
  • Early RTCP mode
  • Regular RTCP Mode

Multiplexing RTP Sessions

In RTP, multiplexing is provided by the destination transport address (network address and port number) which is different for each RTP session ( seprate for audio and video ). This helps in cases where there is chaneg in encodings , change of clockrates , detection of packet loss suffered and RTCP reporting .
Moreover RTP mixer would not be able to combine interleaved streams of incompatible media into one stream.

Interleaving packets with different RTP media types but using the same SSRC would introduce several problems.
But multiplexing multiple related sources of the same medium in one RTP session using different SSRC values is the norm for multicast sessions.

SDES (Session Description Protocol Security Descriptions)

way to negotiate the key/cryptographic parameters for SRTP
keys are transported in the SDP attachment of a SIP message using TLS transport layer (SSLv3/TLSv1) or other methods like S/MIME.
media attribute defined by SDES is “crypto”
a=crypto: inline: [session-parms]

3 commonly used crypto suites are
AES_CM_128_HMAC_SHA1_80
AES_CM_128_HMAC_SHA1_32
F8_128_HMAC_SHA1_32

Extended RTP Profile for Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/AVPF)

RTP provides continuous feedback about the overall reception quality from all receivers — thereby allowing the sender(s) in the mid-term to adapt their coding scheme and transmission behavior to the observed network quality of service (QoS).

RTP makes no provision for timely feedback that would allow a sender to repair the media stream immediately: through retransmissions, retroactive Forward Error Correction (FEC) control, or media-specific mechanisms for some video codecs, such as reference picture selection.

REMB ( Receiver Estimated Maximum Bitrate)

RTCP message used to provide bandwidth estimation in order to avoid creating congestion in the network.
support for this message is negotiated in the Offer/Answer SDP Exchange.

contains total estimated available bitrate on the path to the receiving side of this RTP session (in mantissa + exponent format).
used by sender to configure the maximum bitrate of the video encoding.

also notify the available bandwidth in the network and by media servers to limit the amount of bitrate the sender is allowed to send.

In Chrome it is deprecated in favor of the new sender side bandwidth estimation based on RTCP Transport Feedback messages.

Session Description Protocol (SDP) Capability Negotiation

negotiate use of one out of several possible transport protocols. The offerer uses the expected least-common-denominator (plain RTP) as the actual configuration, and the alternative transport protocols as the potential configurations.

m=audio 53456 RTP/AVP 0 18
a=tcap:1 RTP/SAVPF RTP/SAVP RTP/AVPF

plain RTP (RTP/AVP)
Secure RTP (RTP/SAVP)
RTP with RTCP-based feedback (RTP/AVPF)
Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/SAVPF)

Technologies around RTP streaming

Adaptive bitrate control

Adapt the audio and video codec bitrates to the available bandwidth, and hence optimize audio & video quality
For video, since reslution is chosed at the start only , encoder use bitrate and framerate sttributes onlu dirng runtime to adapt

RTCP packet called TMMBR (Temporary Maximum Media Stream Bit Rate Request) is sent to the remote client

Ref:

RFC 3550 – RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications

RFC 4585 Extended RTP Profile for Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/AVPF)

Kamailio DNS and NAT

DNS sub-system in Kamailio

To resolve hostname into ips it can do either of below

  • use libresolv and a combination of the locally configured DNS server /etc/hosts and the local Network Information Service (NIS/YP a.s.o)
  • or cache the query results and first look into internal cache

DNS failover – if destination resolves to multiple addresses tm can try all of them until it finds one to which it can successfully send the packet or it exhausts all of them , with internal DNS cache. Also used when the destination host doesn’t send any reply to a forwarded invite within the SIP timeout interval (tm fr_timer parameter).

DNS load balancing – SRV based load balancing with weight value in the DNS SRV record.

Drawbacks

  1. Only the locally configured DNS server (usually in /etc/resolv.conf) is
    used for the requests (/etc/hosts and the local Network Information Service are ignored).
    Workaround: disable the DNS cache (use_dns_cache=off or compile without -DUSE_DNS_CACHE).
  2. The DNS cache uses extra memory
    Workaround: disable the DNS cache.
  3. The DNS failover introduces a very small performance penalty
    Workaround: disable the DNS failover (use_dns_failover=off).
  4. The DNS failover increases the memory usage (the internal structures
    used to represent the transaction are bigger when the DNS failover support is compiled).
    Workaround: compile without DNS failover support (DUSE_DNS_FAILOVER).Turning it off from the config file is not enough in this case (the extra
    memory will still be used).

NAT ( Network Address Translation)

Network address translation replaces the IP address within packets with a different IP address which internet endpoints can relate with
Enables multiple hosts in a private subnet with their pwn private address ( 10.x.x.x or 192.x.x.x etc ) to share single public IP address interface, to access the Internet.

NAT ( Network Address Translation)

NAT is bidirectional- If the private ip:port got translated to public ip:port on the inside interface while entering outside internet, on arriving from outside interface it will get translated from public ip:port to private ip:port

For a SBC ( Session border controller ) or where the kamailio server is directly customer facing , where you dont have a private line or VPN to clients, then it is often encountered with NATed endpoints. Read more about NAT traversal using STUN and TURN here

Why is Nat important in SIP?

These characteristics of SIP design and operation flows demonstrate why NAT solutions are so important ,

  • RFC 3261 for SIP presumed end-to-end reachability and does not specify much around ANT issues .
  • No NLRI (Network Layer Reachability Information) translation layer exists, such as DNS or ARP
  • SIP is designed to used RTP which uses dynamically allocated ports to stream media.
    It is comparable to FTP which creates ephemeral connections on unpredictable dynamic ports to send multiplexed data and “metadata”, instead of protocol like HTTP where all data is sent on same connection.
  • UDP (default transport for SIP) is connection less and session tracking requires these be mapped onto a statelful flow, rigorous keepalives and other such techniques like using TCP instead have their own tradeoffs
  • since sip packets put network and transport information right on sip header they are limited by the rateability and awareness of their network interface thereby prevent other endpoint from reaching its ip or port

Types of NAT solutions

Client-side NAT traversal – clients are responsible for identifying their WAN NLRI and adding ip and port to navigate them in outside world

Server-side NAT traversal – SIP server should discover the client’s WAN addressing while clients continue to work transparently behind NAT. Requires that DIP server look at the source and destination ip and port of actual packets instead of relying on the encapsulated sip headers and SDP body.

ALG (Application Layer Gateways) – mostly applied at router itself. wodk by susbtitung public IP/port information inplace of provate and vice versa for return packets . Limitataions – they dont provide a fullproof fix example they may fix Via but not the Contact address or SDP body or RTP ports

NAT behaviours

Cone NAT

Local client performs an outbound connection to a remote UA and a dynamic rule is created for the destination IP tuple, allowing the remote machine to connect back. Further subdivied into:
– Full Cone NAT
– Restricted Cone NAT
– Port-Restricted Cone NAT

Symmetric NAT

Local client allows inbound connections from a specific source IP address and port, also NAT assigns a new random source port for each destination IP tuple

NAT behaviours

Cone NAT

Local client performs an outbound connection to a remote UA and a dynamic rule is created for the destination IP tuple, allowing the remote machine to connect back. Further subdivied into:
– Full Cone NAT
– Restricted Cone NAT – all requests from the same internal IP address and port are mapped to the same external IP address and port.
– Port-Restricted Cone NAT

Symmetric NAT

Local client allows inbound connections from a specific source IP address and port, also NAT assigns a new random source port for each destination IP tuple

RTP NAT

NAT not only applies to sip signalling packets but also to RTP. Even SIP packets are abel to transverse accross private -public network interfaces to the right place across a NAT’d connection, that doesn’t solve two-way media.
RTP performs RTP latching where client listens for at least one RTP frame arriving at the destination port it advertised, and harvests the source IP and port from that packet and uses that for the return RTP path. RTP latching works out of the box for puclin RTP endpoints but not for ones behind NAT.

It is thus recommended to use an intermediate RTP relay such as RTPengine on kamailio. It is controlled via a UDP control socket by kamailio as an external process. More on installation and descrition of RTP engine on kamailio is covered here. When RTPengine control module receives RTP offer /answer from akmailio , it opens a pair of RTP/RTCP ports to receive traffic and substitues in SDP. Doing so for both ends makes RTP engine come in media stream packets of both directions

Fixing NAT

when the client is behind NAT, following needs to be taken careof to provide smooth operation

  1. Ensuring Tranactional replies are sent to correct source address ( maybe using ;rport param and forcerport() method ) instead of just relying on via header transport protocol and port.
    example:
if (client_nat_test("3")){
    //CALL RE-INVITE/UPDATE Nat DETECTED $ci\n");
    force_rport();
    fix_contact();
    ...
}

also Change Media ip address to public IP

if(nat_uac_test("8") && search("Content-type: application/sdp")) {
        // RE-INVITE/UPDATE CALL fix SDP- NAT
        fix_nated_sdp("2");
}
  1. Any far-end NAT traversal solution ( TURN server) if employed should stay i path of entire Dialog not just for initial INVITE transaction which many times results in ACK being dropped. This can be achived by adding Record-Route header of rr module to the initial INVITE request itself
  2. set the advertised address of the public-facing inetrface to the Public NAT IP using “listen” parameter
  3. Ensure contact URI is NAT processed by using NATHelper modules which rewrites the domain portion of the Contact URI to contain the source IP and port of the request or reply. add_contact_alias([ip_addr, port, proto]) in NAThelper module which adds “;alias=ip~port~transport” parameter to the contact URI containing either received ip, port, and transport protocol or those given as parameters , so
    Contact:
    is turned into:
    Contact:
  4. implement RTP proxy which performs NAT for streams such as rtpengine module

NAT Traversal Module

Provides far-end NAT traversal to kamailio’s SIP signalling .
Its role is

  • detect user agents behind NAT
  • manipulate SIP headers so that user agents can continue working behind NAT transparently
  • keepalives to UA behind NAT to preserve their visibility in network

pros

  • even detect UAs behind multiple cascaded NAT boxes, complex distributed env with multiple proxies
  • handle env where incoming and outgoing paths are diff for SIP messages
  • handle cases when routing path may even change between consecutive dialogs
  • can work for other than registered UA’s also

cons

  • built for IPv4 NAT handling not adapted to support IPv6 session keepalives.

Why use keepalive when Registrations are already there for NATing ?

  1. NAT binding works for registered users who want incoming calls. However for cases like outgoing calls or for presence subscription notifications, failings registration implies inability to receive further in-dialog messages after the NAT binding expires. This artificial binding for registrations makes system unreliable and volatile as it doesnot guarantee the delivery of in-dialog messages for outgoing calls without registration renewal. Therefore keepalive are adopted which also works for unregistered users.
  2. Minimizes the traffic as only border proxies send keepalives which send keepalives statelessly, instead of having to relay messages generated by the registrars.
  3. Also for situations when DNS resolves diff proxies for outgoing or incoming path traditional register based keepalives fail to associate or dissociate correct routes.

How keepalives work for NATing ?

This mechanism works by sending a SIP request to a user agent behind NAT to make that user agent send back a reply. The purpose is to have packets sent from inside the NAT to the proxy often enough to prevent the NAT box from timing out the connection.

Module sends Keeplaives to preserve their visibility only in :

  • Registration – for user agent that have registered to for incoming calls, triggering keepalive for a REGISTER request.
  • Subscription – for presence agents that have subscribed to some events for receiving back notifications with SUBSCRIBE request.
  • Dialogs – for user agents that have initiated an outgoing call for receiving further in-dialog messages.
    When all the conditions to keepalive a NAT endpoint will disappear, that endpoint will be removed from the list with the NAT endpoints that need to be kept alive.

function nat_keepalive() :

  • the function needs to be called on proxy directly interacting with UA behind NAT.
  • call only once for the requests (REGISTER, SUBSCRIBE or outgoing INVITEs) that triggers the need for network visibility.
  • call before the request gets either a stateless reply or it is relayed with t_relay()
  • for outgoing INVITE , it triggers dialog tracing for that dialog and will use the dialog callbacks to detect changes in the dialog state.

Dependencies – sl , tm and dialog module

Params

keepalive_interval – time interval between sending a keepalive message to all the endpoints that need being kept alive. A negative value or zero will disable the keepalive functionality.

modparam("nat_traversal", "keepalive_interval", 30) // 30 seconds keeplaive inetrval

keepalive_method – SIP method to use to send keepalive messages.usual ones are NOTIFY and OPTIONS. Default value is “NOTIFY”.

modparam("nat_traversal", "keepalive_method", "OPTIONS")

keepalive_from – SIP URI to use in the From header of the keepalive requests. default sip:keepalive@proxy_ip,with IP address of the outgoing interface

modparam("nat_traversal", "keepalive_from", "sip:keepalive@altanai.com")

keepalive_extra_headers – extra headers that should be added to the keepalive messages. Header must also include the CRLF (\r\n) line separator. Multiple headers can be specified by concatenating with \r\n separator.

modparam("nat_traversal", "keepalive_extra_headers", "User-Agent: Kamailio\r\nX-MyHeader: some_value\r\n")

keepalive_state_file – filename where information about the NAT endpoints and the conditions for which they are being kept alive is saved . It is used when Kamailio starts to restore its internal state and continue to send keepalive messages to the NAT endpoints that have not expired in the meantime. Also used at kamailio restart as it avoids losing keepalive state information about the NAT endpoints.

modparam("nat_traversal", "keepalive_state_file", "/var/run/kamailio/keepalive_state")

Functions

client_nat_test – Check if the client is behind NAT. Tests to be performed gievn by int can be :
1 – tests if client has a private IP address or one from shared address space in the Contact field of the SIP message.
2 – tests if client has contacted Kamailio from an address that is different from the one in the Via field.
4 – tests if client has a private IP address or one from shared address space in the top Via field of the SIP message.

For example calling client_nat_test(“3”) will perform test 1 and test 2 and return true if at least one succeeds, otherwise false.

fix_contact() – replace the IP and port in the Contact header with the IP and port the SIP message was received from. Usually called after a succesfull call to client_nat_test(type)

if (client_nat_test("3")) {
    fix_contact();
}

nat_keepalive() – Triggers keepalive functionality for the source address of the request. When called it only sets some internal flags, which will trigger later the addition of the endpoint to the keepalive list if a positive reply is generated/received (for REGISTER and SUBSCRIBE) or when the dialog is started/replied (for INVITEs). For this reason, it can be called early or late in the script. The only condition is to call it before replying to the request or before sending it to another proxy. If the request needs to be sent to another proxy, t_relay() must be used to be able to intercept replies via TM or dialog callbacks.

If stateless forwarding is used, the keepalive functionality will not work. Also for outgoing INVITEs, record_route() should also be used to make sure the proxy that keeps the caller endpoint alive stays in the path.

if ((method=="REGISTER" || method=="SUBSCRIBE" ||
    (method=="INVITE" && !has_totag())) && client_nat_test("3"))
{
    nat_keepalive();
}

Pseudo Variables
$keepalive.socket(nat_endpoint)
$source_uri

Statistics

  • keepalive_endpoints – total number of NAT endpoints that are being kept alive.
  • registered_endpoints – NAT endpoints kept alive for registrations
  • subscribed_endpoints – NAT endpoints kept alive for subscriptions.
  • dialog_endpoints – Indicates how many of the NAT endpoints are kept alive for taking part in an INVITE dialog.

NATHelper Module

NAT traversal and reuse of TCP connections
Helps symmetric UAs who are not able to determine their public address.

NAT pinging types

UDP packet – 4 bytes (zero filled) UDP packets are sent to the contact address.
pros : low bandwitdh traffic, easy to generate by Kamailio;
cons : unidirectional traffic through NAT (inbound – from outside to inside); As many NATs do update the bind timeout only on outbound traffic, the bind may expire and closed.

SIP request – a stateless SIP request is sent to the UDP contact address.
pros : bidirectional traffic through NAT, since each PING request from Kamailio (inbound traffic) will force the SIP client to generate a SIP reply (outbound traffic) – the NAT bind will be surely kept open.
cons : higher bandwitdh traffic, more expensive (as time) to generate by Kamailio;

Dependencies – usrloc

Params

force_socket – Socket to be used when sending NAT pings for UDP communication.

modparam("nathelper", "force_socket", "127.0.0.1:5060")

natping_interval
ping_nated_only
natping_processes – How many timer processes should be created by the module for the exclusive task of sending the NAT pings.
natping_socket
received_avp – AVP) used to store the URI containing the received IP, port, and protocol by fix_nated_register
sipping_bflag
sipping_from
sipping_method
natping_disable_bflag
nortpproxy_str
keepalive_timeout
udpping_from_path
append_sdp_oldmediaip
filter_server_id

Functions

fix_nated_contact() -rewrites the “Contact” header field with request’s source address:port pair
fix_nated_sdp() adds the active direction indication to SDP and updates ource ip address information too
add_rcv_param() – add a received parameter to the “Contact” header fields or the Contact URI.
fix_nated_register() exports the request’s source address:port into an AVP to be used during save()
nat_uac_test()- check if client’s request originated behind a nat
is_rfc1918()
add_contact_alias() – Adds an “;alias=ip~port~transport” parameter to the contact URI
handle_ruri_alias() – Checks if the Request URI has an “alias” parameter and if so, removes it and sets the “$du” based on its value.
set_contact_alias()

Pseudo Variables

$rr_count – Number of Record Routes in received SIP request or reply.
$rr_top_count – If topmost Record Route in received SIP request or reply is a double Record Route, value of $rr_top_count is 2.

RPC Commands

nathelper.enable_ping

Ref :

VoIP system DevOPS, operations and Infrastructure management Automation

Continuous Integration and Delivery Automation using Jenkins

continous delivery hub
distribute work across multiple machines, helping drive builds, tests and deployments across multiple platforms
self-contained Java-based program
extensible using plugins

Jenkins pieline

orchestrate and automate building their project in Jenkins


Configuration management using chef cookbooks

Alternatives like puppet and Ansible, which are also a cross-platform configuration management platform


Compute virtualization and containerization using Docker

Docker containers can be used instead of virtual machines such as VirtualBox , to isolates applications and be OS and platform independent
Makes distributed development possible and automates the deployment possible

Usage: docker [OPTIONS] COMMAND

A self-sufficient runtime for containers

Options:
–config string Location of client config files (default “/root/.docker”)
-D, –debug Enable debug mode
-H, –host list Daemon socket(s) to connect to
-l, –log-level string Set the logging level (“debug”|”info”|”warn”|”error”|”fatal”) (default “info”)
–tls Use TLS; implied by –tlsverify
–tlscacert string Trust certs signed only by this CA (default “/root/.docker/ca.pem”)
–tlscert string Path to TLS certificate file (default “/root/.docker/cert.pem”)
–tlskey string Path to TLS key file (default “/root/.docker/key.pem”)
–tlsverify Use TLS and verify the remote
-v, –version Print version information and quit

Docker commands

Management Commands:
builder Manage builds
config Manage Docker configs
container Manage containers
engine Manage the docker engine
image Manage images
network Manage networks
node Manage Swarm nodes
plugin Manage plugins
secret Manage Docker secrets
service Manage services
stack Manage Docker stacks
swarm Manage Swarm
system Manage Docker
trust Manage trust on Docker images
volume Manage volumes

Commands:
attach Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container
build Build an image from a Dockerfile
commit Create a new image from a container’s changes
cp Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem
create Create a new container
diff Inspect changes to files or directories on a container’s filesystem
events Get real time events from the server
exec Run a command in a running container
export Export a container’s filesystem as a tar archive
history Show the history of an image
images List images
import Import the contents from a tarball to create a filesystem image
info Display system-wide information
inspect Return low-level information on Docker objects
kill Kill one or more running containers
load Load an image from a tar archive or STDIN
login Log in to a Docker registry
logout Log out from a Docker registry
logs Fetch the logs of a container
pause Pause all processes within one or more containers
port List port mappings or a specific mapping for the container
ps List containers
pull Pull an image or a repository from a registry
push Push an image or a repository to a registry
rename Rename a container
restart Restart one or more containers
rm Remove one or more containers
rmi Remove one or more images
run Run a command in a new container
save Save one or more images to a tar archive (streamed to STDOUT by default)
search Search the Docker Hub for images
start Start one or more stopped containers
stats Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics
stop Stop one or more running containers
tag Create a tag TARGET_IMAGE that refers to SOURCE_IMAGE
top Display the running processes of a container
unpause Unpause all processes within one or more containers
update Update configuration of one or more containers
version Show the Docker version information
wait Block until one or more containers stop, then print their exit codes

docker container commands

List all container

docker ps 

docker container COMMAND

attach Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container
commit Create a new image from a container’s changes
cp Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem
create Create a new container
diff Inspect changes to files or directories on a container’s filesystem
exec Run a command in a running container
export Export a container’s filesystem as a tar archive
inspect Display detailed information on one or more containers
kill Kill one or more running containers
logs Fetch the logs of a container
ls List containers
pause Pause all processes within one or more containers
port List port mappings or a specific mapping for the container
prune Remove all stopped containers
rename Rename a container
restart Restart one or more containers
rm Remove one or more containers
run Run a command in a new container
start Start one or more stopped containers
stats Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics
stop Stop one or more running containers
top Display the running processes of a container
unpause Unpause all processes within one or more containers
update Update configuration of one or more containers
wait Block until one or more containers stop, then print their exit codes

docker image commands

see all iamges

&gt;docker images
REPOSITORY                  TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
sipcapture/homer-cron       latest              fb2243f90cde        3 hours ago         476MB
sipcapture/homer-kamailio   latest              f159d46a22f3        3 hours ago         338MB
sipcapture/heplify          latest              9f5280306809        21 hours ago        9.61MB
<none&gt;                      <none&gt;              edaa5c708b3a        21 hours ago        619MB
mysql                       5.6                 c30095c52827        36 hours ago        256MB
sipcapture/homer-app        master              1e883a8d88d4        2 days ago          454MB
postgres                    11-alpine           5239fade3a90        7 days ago          71.9MB
golang                      alpine              6b21b4c6e7a3        7 days ago          350MB
alpine                      latest              b7b28af77ffe        7 days ago          5.58MB
debian                      jessie              652b7a59e393        9 days ago          129MB
sipcapture/heplify-server   master              aa85bfa7cb3e        2 weeks ago         22.6MB
kapacitor                   1.5-alpine          2a63b9d348df        4 weeks ago         73.6MB
influxdb                    1.5-alpine          40e13f6ee02a        7 weeks ago         84MB
chronograf                  1.5-alpine          02ed2863e25b        7 weeks ago         44.5MB
sipcapture/hepsub           master              3ef6550c4bc6        2 months ago        90.6MB
hello-world                 latest              fce289e99eb9        6 months ago        1.84kB
sipcapture/homer-webapp     latest              75e5b5b7b33c        7 months ago        428MB
telegraf                    1.5-alpine          aa8daabb3b1c        10 months ago       42MB
stefanprodan/caddy          latest              655880563633        21 months ago       24.7MB

See all stats

>docker stats
CONTAINER ID        NAME                CPU %               MEM USAGE / LIMIT     MEM %               NET I/O             BLOCK I/O           PIDS
f42c71741107        homer-cron          0.00%               52KiB / 994.6MiB      0.01%               2.3kB / 0B          602MB / 0B          0
0111765091ae        mysql               0.04%               452.2MiB / 994.6MiB   45.46%              1.35kB / 0B         2.06GB / 49.2kB     22

Run command from with docker

docker exec -it bash

First see all processes

docker ps

select a process and enter its bash

docker exec -it 0472a5127fff bash

to edit or update a file inside docker either install vim everytime u login in resh docker conainer like

apt-get update
apt-get install vim

or add this to dockerfile

RUN [“apt-get”, “update”]
RUN [“apt-get”, “install”, “-y”, “vim”]

see if ngrep is install , if not then install and run ngrep to get sip logs isnode that docker container

apt update
apt install ngrep
ngrep -p "14795778704" -W byline -d any port 5060

docker volume

volumes are used for persisting data generated by and used by Docker containers.
docker volumes have advantages over blind mounts such as
easier to backup or migrate , managed by docker APIs, can be safely shared among multiple containers etc

Commands:
create Create a volume
inspect Display detailed information on one or more volumes
ls List volumes
prune Remove all unused local volumes
rm Remove one or more volumes

docker stack

Lets to manager a cluster of docker containers thorugh docker swarm
can be defined via docker-compose.yml file

Options:
–orchestrator string Orchestrator to use (swarm|kubernetes|all)

Commands:
deploy Deploy a new stack or update an existing stack
ls List stacks
ps List the tasks in the stack
rm Remove one or more stacks
services List the services in the stack

docker service

commands :
create Create a new service
inspect Display detailed information on one or more services
logs Fetch the logs of a service or task
ls List services
ps List the tasks of one or more services
rm Remove one or more services
rollback Revert changes to a service’s configuration
scale Scale one or multiple replicated services
update Update a service

Run docker ccontainers

Run a command in a new container

Options:
–add-host list Add a custom host-to-IP mapping (host:ip)
-a, –attach list Attach to STDIN, STDOUT or STDERR
–blkio-weight uint16 Block IO (relative weight), between 10 and 1000, or 0 to disable (default 0)
–blkio-weight-device list Block IO weight (relative device weight) (default [])
–cap-add list Add Linux capabilities
–cap-drop list Drop Linux capabilities
–cgroup-parent string Optional parent cgroup for the container
–cidfile string Write the container ID to the file
–cpu-period int Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) period
–cpu-quota int Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) quota
–cpu-rt-period int Limit CPU real-time period in microseconds
–cpu-rt-runtime int Limit CPU real-time runtime in microseconds
-c, –cpu-shares int CPU shares (relative weight)
–cpus decimal Number of CPUs
–cpuset-cpus string CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
–cpuset-mems string MEMs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
-d, –detach Run container in background and print container ID
–detach-keys string Override the key sequence for detaching a container
–device list Add a host device to the container
–device-cgroup-rule list Add a rule to the cgroup allowed devices list
–device-read-bps list Limit read rate (bytes per second) from a device (default [])
–device-read-iops list Limit read rate (IO per second) from a device (default [])
–device-write-bps list Limit write rate (bytes per second) to a device (default [])
–device-write-iops list Limit write rate (IO per second) to a device (default [])
–disable-content-trust Skip image verification (default true)
–dns list Set custom DNS servers
–dns-option list Set DNS options
–dns-search list Set custom DNS search domains
–entrypoint string Overwrite the default ENTRYPOINT of the image
-e, –env list Set environment variables
–env-file list Read in a file of environment variables
–expose list Expose a port or a range of ports
–group-add list Add additional groups to join
–health-cmd string Command to run to check health
–health-interval duration Time between running the check (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
–health-retries int Consecutive failures needed to report unhealthy
–health-start-period duration Start period for the container to initialize before starting health-retries countdown (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
–health-timeout duration Maximum time to allow one check to run (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
–help Print usage
-h, –hostname string Container host name
–init Run an init inside the container that forwards signals and reaps processes
-i, –interactive Keep STDIN open even if not attached
–ip string IPv4 address (e.g., 172.30.100.104)
–ip6 string IPv6 address (e.g., 2001:db8::33)
–ipc string IPC mode to use
–isolation string Container isolation technology
–kernel-memory bytes Kernel memory limit
-l, –label list Set meta data on a container
–label-file list Read in a line delimited file of labels
–link list Add link to another container
–link-local-ip list Container IPv4/IPv6 link-local addresses
–log-driver string Logging driver for the container
–log-opt list Log driver options
–mac-address string Container MAC address (e.g., 92:d0:c6:0a:29:33)
-m, –memory bytes Memory limit
–memory-reservation bytes Memory soft limit
–memory-swap bytes Swap limit equal to memory plus swap: ‘-1’ to enable unlimited swap
–memory-swappiness int Tune container memory swappiness (0 to 100) (default -1)
–mount mount Attach a filesystem mount to the container
–name string Assign a name to the container
–network string Connect a container to a network (default “default”)
–network-alias list Add network-scoped alias for the container
–no-healthcheck Disable any container-specified HEALTHCHECK
–oom-kill-disable Disable OOM Killer
–oom-score-adj int Tune host’s OOM preferences (-1000 to 1000)
–pid string PID namespace to use
–pids-limit int Tune container pids limit (set -1 for unlimited)
–privileged Give extended privileges to this container
-p, –publish list Publish a container’s port(s) to the host
-P, –publish-all Publish all exposed ports to random ports
–read-only Mount the container’s root filesystem as read only
–restart string Restart policy to apply when a container exits (default “no”)
–rm Automatically remove the container when it exits
–runtime string Runtime to use for this container
–security-opt list Security Options
–shm-size bytes Size of /dev/shm
–sig-proxy Proxy received signals to the process (default true)
–stop-signal string Signal to stop a container (default “SIGTERM”)
–stop-timeout int Timeout (in seconds) to stop a container
–storage-opt list Storage driver options for the container
–sysctl map Sysctl options (default map[])
–tmpfs list Mount a tmpfs directory
-t, –tty Allocate a pseudo-TTY
–ulimit ulimit Ulimit options (default [])
-u, –user string Username or UID (format: [:])
–userns string User namespace to use
–uts string UTS namespace to use
-v, –volume list Bind mount a volume
–volume-driver string Optional volume driver for the container
–volumes-from list Mount volumes from the specified container(s)
-w, –workdir string Working directory inside the container

sample run command

docker run -it -d --name opensips -e ENV=dev imagename:2.2

-it flags attaches to an interactive tty in the container.
-e gives envrionment variables
-d runs it in background and prints container id

remove docker entities

To remove all stopped containers, all dangling images, and all unused networks:

docker system prune -a

To remove all unused volumes

docker system prune --volumes

To remove all stopped containers

docker container prune
sometimes docker images keep piling with stopped congainer such as 
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE
d1dcfe2438ae 15 minutes ago 753MB
2d353828889b 16 hours ago 910MB
fb16e1be51f3 16 hours ago 910MB
3dc9b3fbe2fb 17 hours ago 910MB
7d1e4f183d93 18 hours ago 910MB
70fe962b9971 18 hours ago 910MB
c349859656b5 18 hours ago 910MB
5d4cbd1f4cbe 18 hours ago 910MB
aef6e40820f2 18 hours ago 910MB
4a4d3897f40e 18 hours ago 910MB
46bca8b4b1c3 20 hours ago 910MB
c172e5f24798 20 hours ago 910MB
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS                        PORTS               NAMES
0dd6698a7517 2d353828889b "/entrypoint.sh" 13 minutes ago Exited (137) 13 minutes ago hardcore_wozniak
047a42f7a6cd d1dcfe2438ae "/bin/sh -c 'aws s3 …" 18 minutes ago Exited (1) 18 minutes ago ecstatic_heisenberg
65b2305520e9 2d353828889b "/entrypoint.sh" 27 minutes ago Exited (137) 26 minutes ago mystifying_robinson
56841a6c8da4 2d353828889b "/entrypoint.sh" 17 hours ago Exited (137) 26 minutes ago compassionate_keldysh
c23f9399c53d zt-voipmonitor "/entrypoint.sh" 17 hours ago Exited (7) 17 hours ago angry_zhukovsky
5a0f99b7485a 3dc9b3fbe2fb "/entrypoint.sh" 17 hours ago Exited (137) 17 hours ago elegant_haslett
f49a4305928a 7d1e4f183d93 "/entrypoint.sh" 17 hours ago Exited (137) 17 hours ago boring_bose
53afb5633a60 7d1e4f183d93 "/entrypoint.sh" 17 hours ago Exited (137) 17 hours ago suspicious_varahamihira
662f6a76ecb3 7d1e4f183d93 "/entrypoint.sh" 17 hours ago Exited (137) 17 hours ago wizardly_booth
c5dd4e8e8a12 7d1e4f183d93 "/entrypoint.sh" 17 hours ago Exited (137) 17 hours ago gracious_kapitsa
0d17dd07af57 7d1e4f183d93 "/entrypoint.sh" 17 hours ago Exited (137) 17 hours ago upbeat_elbakyan
60b419a51099 7d1e4f183d93 "/entrypoint.sh" 17 hours ago Exited (137) 17 hours ago dreamy_ptolemy
6f3a7ca0a2d4 7d1e4f183d93 "/entrypoint.sh" 17 hours ago Exited (137) 17 hours ago stupefied_gauss
0acab30d0c33 7d1e4f183d93 "/entrypoint.sh" 17 hours ago Exited (137) 17 hours ago reverent_varahamihira
b3414b91d718 7d1e4f183d93 "/entrypoint.sh" 18 hours ago Exited (137) 17 hours ago blissful_goodall

to remove such images and their conainer , first stop and remove confainers

docker stop $(docker ps -a -q)
docker rm $(docker ps -a -q)

then remove all dangling images

docker rmi  $(docker images -aq --filter dangling=true)

Infrastructure management using terraform

building, changing, and versioning infrastructure
Infra as Code – can run single application to datacentres via configuration files which create execution plan
can manage low-level components such as compute instances, storage, and networking, as well as high-level components such as DNS entries, SaaS features, etc.
Resource Graph – builds a graph of all your resources

tfenv can be used to manage terraform versions

brew unlink terraform
tfenv install 0.11.14
tfenv list 

Terraform configuration language

used for decalring resoirces and descriptions of infrastructure
.tf or .tf.json file extension
group of resources can be gathered into a module
Terraform configuration consists of a root module, where evaluation begins, along with a tree of child modules created when one module calls another.

Exmaple : launch a single AWS EC2 instance , fle server1.tf

provider "aws" {
  profile    = "default"
  region     = "us-east-1"
}

resource "aws_instance" "server1" {
  ami           = "ami-2757f631"
  instance_type = "t2.micro"
}

note : AMI IDs are region specific.
profile attribute here refers to the AWS Config File in ~/.aws/credentials

Terraform command line interface (CLI)

engine for evaluating and applying Terraform configurations.
uses plugins called providers that each define and manage a set of resource types

Command Usage: terraform [-version] [-help] [args]

Common commands:
apply Builds or changes infrastructure
console Interactive console for Terraform interpolations
destroy Destroy Terraform-managed infrastructure
env Workspace management
fmt Rewrites config files to canonical format
get Download and install modules for the configuration
graph Create a visual graph of Terraform resources
import Import existing infrastructure into Terraform
init Initialize a Terraform working directory
output Read an output from a state file
plan Generate and show an execution plan
providers Prints a tree of the providers used in the configuration
refresh Update local state file against real resources
show Inspect Terraform state or plan
taint Manually mark a resource for recreation
untaint Manually unmark a resource as tainted
validate Validates the Terraform files
version Prints the Terraform version
workspace Workspace management

All other commands:
0.12upgrade Rewrites pre-0.12 module source code for v0.12
debug Debug output management (experimental)
force-unlock Manually unlock the terraform state
push Obsolete command for Terraform Enterprise legacy (v1)
state Advanced state management

terraform init
initialize a working directory containing Terraform configuration files.

terraform validate
checks that verify whether a configuration is internally-consistent, regardless of any provided variables or existing state.


Kubernetes

container orchestration platform , automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications.
can deploy to cluster of computers, automating the distribution and scheduling as well

Service discovery and load balancing – gives Pods their own IP addresses and a single DNS name for a set of Pods, and can load-balance across them.
Automatic bin packing – Automatically places containers based on their resource requirements and other constraints, while not sacrificing availability. Mix critical and best-effort workloads in order to drive up utilization and save even more resources.
Storage orchestration
Automatically mount the storage system of your choice, whether from local storage, a public cloud provider such as GCP or AWS, or a network storage system such as NFS, iSCSI, Gluster, Ceph, Cinder, or Flocker.
Self-healing – Restarts containers that fail, replaces and reschedules containers when nodes die, kills containers that don’t respond to your user-defined health check, and doesn’t advertise them to clients until they are ready to serve.
Automated rollouts and rollbacks – progressively rolls out changes to your application or its configuration, while monitoring application health to ensure it doesn’t kill all your instances at the same time.
Secret and configuration management – Deploy and update secrets and application configuration without rebuilding your image and without exposing secrets in your stack configuration.
Batch execution- manage batch and CI workloads, replacing containers that fail, if desired.
Horizontal scaling – Scale application up and down with a simple command, with a UI, or automatically based on CPU usage.


DevOps monitoring tools nagios

Manage Docker configs

Commands:
create Create a config from a file or STDIN
inspect Display detailed information on one or more configs
ls List configs
rm Remove one or more configs

Manage containers

Commands:
attach Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container
commit Create a new image from a container’s changes
cp Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem
create Create a new container
diff Inspect changes to files or directories on a container’s filesystem
exec Run a command in a running container
export Export a container’s filesystem as a tar archive
inspect Display detailed information on one or more containers
kill Kill one or more running containers
logs Fetch the logs of a container
ls List containers
pause Pause all processes within one or more containers
port List port mappings or a specific mapping for the container
prune Remove all stopped containers
rename Rename a container
restart Restart one or more containers
rm Remove one or more containers
run Run a command in a new container
start Start one or more stopped containers
stats Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics
stop Stop one or more running containers
top Display the running processes of a container
unpause Unpause all processes within one or more containers
update Update configuration of one or more containers
wait Block until one or more containers stop, then print their exit codes

Alternatives, Senu multi-cloud monitoring or Raygun

Ref :

Terraform : https://www.terraform.io
Kubernetes : https://kubernetes.io/
Sensu : https://sensu.io/

Jenkisn – https://raygun.com/blog/best-devops-tools/

Surajdroid ( Ramudroid v7 Solar Powered )

Ramudroid is an ingeniously build robot to clean outdoors and alleys inspired by Bharat Swachhata Abhiyaan . Read more

Prototype in Development

Frame and wheel

solar panel mounted

Algorithm Enhancements

Obstruction Detection

Stop Operation on Tray Weight reaching threshold

Pause operation and take Shelter in Rain

Equipment Cost

Power And Charge Devices

  1. Solar Panel MicroSun MS 12v 60 WP – 2500 INR
  2. Solar charger Controller – 600 INR
  3. Battery 11.1 V 2200 mAh – 500 INR

Frame and Motion Assembly

  1. Wheels 10 cm diameter – 50 INR x 4 ie 200 INR
  2. Tray – 400 INR
  3. Frame Assembly – 1000 INR
  4. Arduino to control Motors Drivers – 500 INR
  5. Motor Driver – 300 INR
  6. LCD display – 200 INR

Electronics , Communicating modules and Sensors

  1. Raspberry Pi Moddel B+/ 4 -2700 INR
  2. GPS module – 700 INR
  3. GSM module – 1400 INR
  4. Camera 5 MP Board Module – 450 INR

Total Cost to Develop – 12000 INR

Working Principle

The robot is divided into 2 parts – Cleaning Unit and driving unit

Driving Unit

consists of 4 wheel to drive the setup . Wheels must be tightly fixed inot position to prevent them from tilting, spreading outwards and imbalancing the load. 2 rear controller by 12 V 1 amp DC motors with 300 RPM and 2 front free wheels. Motors are conneted to Arduino for receving command for start , stop , left or right navigation.

There are three input pins for each motor, including Input1 (IN1), Input2 (IN2), and Enable1 (EN1) for Motor1 and Input3, Input4, and Enable2 for Motor2.
IN1 IN2 MOTOR
0 0 BRAKE
1 0 FORWARD
0 1 BACKWARD
1 1 BRAKE

Cleaning Unit

Uses 3 tough bristled brushes controlled by 3 5V DC gear motors with 60 RPM. The arrangement of the brushes is such that the bottom 2 brushes use clockwise and anticlockwise motion outwards to pull in the litter and push up with the flow of the air and bristles of the brush. The third brush combs the collected into the collector tray. The tray is attached to weight control system to stop operations when critical weight is reached to prevent overloading the robot

Solar specification

Maximum Power (Pmax) – 60 Wp
Voltage at Maximum Power (Vmpp) – 18.1 V
Current at Maximum Power (Impp) – 3.32 A
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) – 22.32 V
Short Circuit Current (Isc) – 3.63 A
Standard Test Conditions (STC): air mass AM 1.5, irradiance 1000W/m2, cell temperature 25°C
Maximum System Voltage 1000 V

Electrical Data at NOCT
Temperature – 47±2 °C
Nominal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT): 800W/m2, AM 1.5, windspeed 1m/s,ambient temperature 20°C

Thermal Ratings
Operating Temperature Range -20~90 °C
Temperature Coefficient of Pmax -0.43 %/°C
Temperature Coefficient of Voc -0.36 %/°C
Temperature Coefficient of Isc 0.66 %/°C

Material Data
Panel Dimension (H/W/D) 705x655x35 mm
Weight 6 kg
Cell Type Polycrystalline
Cell Size 156×156 mm
Cell Number 36
Encapsulant Type – EVA ( Ethylene vinyl acetate)
Frame Type Anodized Aluminium Alloy

Physical
Dimentions – 70mm x 655mm x 35mm
cells per module – 36
cell type – poly crystalline sIlicon
fuel cell dimention – 156mm x 156mm
Encapsulation – EVA
back cover – PV sheet

Ref : https://www.enfsolar.com/pv/panel-datasheet/crystalline/20863

Load

Solar panel weight – 5kg with annodixed alumium frame , 3 kg without the frame with just the toughened texture glass on panel
Frame and wheels – 2kg
Accessories – 1 kg
garbage holding capacity – 2 kg
Total Weight of the Robot : maximum upto 10Kg

Scenarios

Good Sunlight scenario : This 12 Volt solar panel provide about 2.5 Amps of current on average during daytime. In such a situtaion it is directly used to drive the machine’s motors for wheels and brushes and electrical components such as PI and arduino. In no motion of rest conditions the genrated power is used to charge the attached backup battery.

Shady / evening / morning scenario : When the panel is not receiving direct or strong sunlight, the power generated is less hence not sufficient to take the load of driving the wheels for movement. Hence is the power falls below a certain prespecified threhold, the current is drawn from battery backup.

Night / No sunlight Scenario : battery is used to power the setup. panel can be dismounted to lower the load.

Contributing to Ramudroid Project or Reuse

It is deigned and developed as an MIT licensed Opensourced product by a bunch of developers and engineers in Bangalore for greater good.

Opensips Modules



Combination of opensips working scenarios scripts with code is at https://github.com/altanai/opensipsexamples.

Dispatcher Module

This modules implements a dispatcher for destination addresses. It computes hashes over parts of the request and selects an address from a destination set. The selected address is used then as outbound proxy.
The module can be used as a stateless load balancer, having no guarantee of fair distribution.

Exported Parameters

list_file (string) – Path to the file with destination sets. Default value is “/etc/opensips/dispatcher.list” or “/usr/local/etc/opensips/dispatcher.list”.

modparam("dispatcher", "list_file", "/var/run/opensips/dispatcher.list")

db_url (string) – load the sets of gateways from the database you must set this parameter. Default value is “NULL” (disable DB support).

modparam("dispatcher", "db_url", "mysql://user:passwb@localhost/database")

table_name (string) – load the sets of gateways from the database you must set this parameter as the database name.
Default value is “dispatcher”.

modparam("dispatcher", "table_name", "my_dispatcher")

setid_col (string) – storing the gateway’s group id. Default value is “setid”.

modparam("dispatcher", "setid_col", "groupid")

destination_col (string) – destination’s sip uri.

modparam("dispatcher", "destination_col", "uri")

flags_col (string) – The column’s name in the database storing the flags for destination uri.

modparam("dispatcher", "flags_col", "dstflags")

force_dst (int) – If set to 1, force overwriting of destination address when that is already set. Default value is “0”.

modparam("dispatcher", "force_dst", 1)

flags (int) – affect dispatcher’s behaviour, defined as a bitmask on an integer value. If flag 1 is set only the username part of the uri will be used when computing an uri based hash. If no flags are set the username, hostname and port will be used The port is used only if different from 5060 (normal sip uri) or 5061 (in the sips case). If flag 2 is set, then the failover support is enabled. The functions exported by the module will store the rest of addresses from the destination set in AVP, and use these AVPs to contact next address when the current-tried fails. Default value is “0”.

modparam("dispatcher", "flags", 3)

use_default (int) – If the parameter is set to 1, the last address in destination set is used as last option to send the message. For example, it is good when wanting to send the call to an anouncement server saying: “the gateways are full, try later”. Default value is “0”.

modparam("dispatcher", "use_default", 1)

dst_avp (str) – The name of the avp which will hold the list with addresses, in the order they have been selected by the chosen algorithm. If use_default is 1, the value of last dst_avp_id is the last address in destination set. The first dst_avp_id is the selected destinations. All the other addresses from the destination set will be added in the avp list to be able to implement serial forking.

modparam("dispatcher", "dst_avp", "$avp(i:271)")

grp_avp (str) – The name of the avp storing the group id of the destination set. Good to have it for later usage or checks. Default is null.

modparam("dispatcher", "grp_avp", "$avp(i:272)")

cnt_avp (str) – The name of the avp storing the number of destination addresses kept in dst_avp avps.

modparam("dispatcher", "cnt_avp", "$avp(i:273)")

hash_pvar (str) – String with PVs used for the hashing algorithm like to do hashing over custom message parts.Default value is “null” – disabled.

modparam("dispatcher", "hash_pvar", "$avp(i:273)")

setid_pvar (str) – name of the PV where to store the set ID (group ID) when calling ds_is_from_list() with no parameter.

modparam("dispatcher", "setid_pvar", "$var(setid)")

ds_ping_method (string) – With this Method you can define, with which method you want to probe the failed gateways. This method is only available, if compiled with the probing of failed gateways enabled. Default value is “OPTIONS”.

modparam("dispatcher", "ds_ping_method", "INFO")

ds_ping_from (string) – With this Method you can define the “From:”-Line for the request, sent to the failed gateways. This method is only available, if compiled with the probing of failed gateways enabled. Default value is “sip:dispatcher@localhost”.

modparam("dispatcher", "ds_ping_from", "sip:proxy@sip.somehost.com")

ds_ping_interval (int – With this Method you can define the interval for sending a request to a failed gateway. This parameter is only used, when the TM-Module is loaded. If set to “0”, the pinging of failed requests is disabled.Default value is “10”.

modparam("dispatcher", "ds_ping_interval", 30)

ds_probing_threshhold (int) – If you want to set a gateway into probing mode, you will need a specific number of requests until it will change from “active” to probing. The number of attempts can be set with this parameter. Default value is “3”.

modparam("dispatcher", "ds_probing_threshhold", 10)

ds_probing_mode (int) – Controls what gateways are tested to see if they are reachable. If set to 0, only the gateways with state PROBING are tested, if set to 1, all gateways are tested. If set to 1 and the response is 407 (timeout), an active gateway is set to PROBING state. Default value is “0”.

modparam("dispatcher", "ds_probing_mode", 1)

options_reply_codes (str) – This parameter must contain a list of SIP reply codes separated by comma. The codes defined here will be considered as valid reply codes for OPTIONS messages used for pinging, apart for 200. Default value is “NULL”.

modparam("dispatcher", "options_reply_codes", "501, 403")

Exported Functions

ds_select_dst(set, alg) – The method selects a destination from addresses set.Meaning of the parameters is as follows:
set – the id of the set from where to pick up destination address. It is the first column in destination list file.
alg – the algorithm used to select the destination address.
“0” – hash over callid
“1” – hash over from uri.
“2” – hash over to uri.
“3” – hash over request-uri.
“4” – round-robin (next destination).
“5” – hash over authorization-username (Proxy-Authorization or “normal” authorization). If no username is found, round robin is used.
“6” – random (using rand()).
“7” – hash over the content of PVs string. Note: This works only when the parameter hash_pvar is set.
“X” – if the algorithm is not implemented, the first entry in set is chosen.

If the bit 2 in ‘flags’ is set, the rest of the addresses from the destination set is stored in AVP list. You can use ‘ds_next_dst()’ to use next address to achieve serial forking to all possible destinations. This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE.

ds_select_dst("1", "0");

ds_select_domain(set, alg)
The method selects a destination from addresses set and rewrites the host and port from R-URI. This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE.

ds_next_dst() – Takes the next destination address from the AVPs with id ‘dst_avp_id’ and sets the dst_uri (outbound proxy address). This function can be used from FAILURE_ROUTE.

ds_next_domain() – Takes the next destination address from the AVPs with id ‘dst_avp_id’ and sets the domain part of the request uri. This function can be used from FAILURE_ROUTE.

ds_mark_dst() – Mark the last used address from destination set as inactive, in order to be ingnored in the future. In this way it can be implemented an automatic detection of failed gateways. When an address is marked as inactive, it will be ignored by ‘ds_select_dst’ and ‘ds_select_domain’. This function can be used from FAILURE_ROUTE.

ds_mark_dst(“s”) – Mark the last used address from destination set as inactive (“i”/”I”/”0”), active (“a”/”A”/”1”) or probing (“p”/”P”/”2”). With this function, an automatic detection of failed gateways can be implemented. When an address is marked as inactive or probing, it will be ignored by ‘ds_select_dst’ and ‘ds_select_domain’. possible parameters:
“i”, “I” or “0” – the last destination should be set to inactive and will be ignored in future requests.
“a”, “A” or “1” – the last destination should be set to active.
“p”, “P” or “2” – the last destination will be set to probing. Note: You will need to call this function “threshhold”-times, before it will be actually set to probing.This function can be used from FAILURE_ROUTE.

ds_is_from_list() – This function returns true, if the current request comes from a host from the dispatcher-list; otherwise false. This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE and ONREPLY_ROUTE.

ds_is_from_list(“group”) – This function returns true, if the current request comes from a host in the given group of the dispatcher-list; otherwise false.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE and ONREPLY_ROUTE.

Exported MI Functions

ds_set_state – Sets the status for a destination address (can be use to mark the destination as active or inactive).
Parameters:
state : state of the destination address
“a”: active
“i”: inactive
“p”: probing
group: destination group id
address: address of the destination in the group

MI FIFO Command Format:
:ds_set_state:reply_fifo_file
state
group
address
empty_line

ds_list – It lists the groups and included destinations.

MI FIFO Command Format:
:ds_list:reply_fifo_file
empty_line

ds_reload – reloads the groups and included destinations.

MI DATAGRAM Command Format:

    ":ds_reload:\n."

Installation and Running

Destination List File – Each destination point must be on one line. First token is the set id, followed by destination address. Optionally, the third field can be flags value (1 – destination inactive, 2 – destination in probing mod — you can do bitwise OR to set both flags). The set id must be an integer value. Destination address must be a valid SIP URI. Empty lines or lines starting with “#” are ignored.

Exmaple of a dispatcher list file
line format
setit(integer) destination(sip uri) flags (integer, optional)

proxies
2 sip:127.0.0.1:5080
2 sip:127.0.0.1:5082

gateways
1 sip:127.0.0.1:7070
1 sip:127.0.0.1:7072
1 sip:127.0.0.1:7074

OpenSIPS config file

sample config file for dispatcher module

debug=9            debug level (cmd line: -dddddddddd)
fork=no
log_stderror=yes  (cmd line: -E)

children=2
check_via=no      (cmd. line: -v)
dns=off           (cmd. line: -r)
rev_dns=off       (cmd. line: -R)
port=5060

module loading

mpath="/usr/local/lib/opensips/modules/"
loadmodule "maxfwd.so"
loadmodule "sl.so"
loadmodule "dispatcher.so"

setting module-specific parameters

dispatcher params

modparam("dispatcher", "list_file", "../etc/dispatcher.list")
// modparam("dispatcher", "force_dst", 1)

route{
if ( !mf_process_maxfwd_header("10") )
{
sl_send_reply("483","To Many Hops");
drop();
};
ds_select_dst("2", "0");
forward();
// t_relay();
}

db_text Module

Implementation for a simplified database engine based on text files. It can be used by OpenSIPS DB interface instead of other database module (like MySQL). It keeps everything in memory.

The db_text database system architecture contains

  • a database is represented by a directory in the local file system. NOTE: when you use db_text in OpenSIPS, the database URL for modules must be the path to the directory where the table-files are located, prefixed by “text://”,
    e.g., “text:///var/dbtext/opensips”.
  • a table is represented by a text file inside database directory.

Internal format of a db_text table

column definition name(type,attr) where types can be int , double , str and attributes be auto , null ,
* each other line is a row with data. The line ends with “\n”.
* the fields are separated by “:”.
* no value between two ‘:’ (or between ‘:’ and start/end of a row) means “null” value.
* next characters must be escaped in strings: “\n”, “\r”, “\t”, “:”.
* 0 — the zero value must be escaped too.

Sample of a db_text table ,

id(int,auto) name(str) flag(double) desc(str,null)
1:nick:0.34:a\tgood\: friend
2:cole:-3.75:colleague
3:bob:2.50:

Minimal OpenSIPS location db_text table definition

username(str) contact(str) expires(int) q(double) callid(str) cseq(int)

Minimal OpenSIPS subscriber db_text table example

username(str) password(str) ha1(str) domain(str) ha1b(str)
suser:supasswd:xxx:alpha.org:xxx

This database interface don’t support the data insertion with default values. All such values specified in the database
template are ignored.

db_mode (integer) – Set caching mode (0 – default) or non-caching mode (1). In caching mode, data is loaded at startup. In non-caching mode, the module check every time a table is requested whether the correspondingfile on disk has changed, and if yes, will re-load table from file.

modparam("db_text", "db_mode", 1)

Exported MI Functions

dbt_dump – Write back to hard drive modified tables.

opensipsctl fifo dbt_dump

dbt_reload – Causes db_text module to reload cached tables from disk. Parameters:
1 db_name (optional) – database name to reload.
2 table_name (optional, but cannot be present without the
db_name parameter) – specific table to reload.

MI FIFO Command Format:
opensipsctl fifo dbt_reload
opensipsctl fifo dbt_reload /path/to/dbtext/database
opensipsctl fifo dbt_reload /path/to/dbtext/database table_name

Installation and Running

Compile the module and load it instead of mysql or other DB modules.

Load the db_text module

loadmodule "/path/to/opensips/modules/db_text.so"
modparam("module_name", "database_URL", "text:///path/to/dbtext/database
")

Using db_text with basic OpenSIPS configuration

Definition of ‘subscriber’ table (one line)

username(str) domain(str) password(str) first_name(str) last_name(str) phone(str) email_address(str) datetime_created(int) datetime_modified(int) confirmation(str) flag(str) sendnotification(str) greeting(str) ha1(str) ha1b(str) perms(str) allow_find(str) timezone(str,null) rpid(str,null)

Definition of ‘location’ and ‘aliases’ tables (one line)

username(str) domain(str,null) contact(str,null) received(str) expires(i
nt,null) q(double,null) callid(str,null) cseq(int,null) last_modified(st
r) flags(int) user_agent(str) socket(str)

Definition of ‘version’ table and sample records

table_name(str) table_version(int)
subscriber:3
location:6
aliases:6

Configuration file using dbtext databse for oersistant storage . Also using auth

<h1>debug_mode=yes</h1>
children=4

check_via=no    # (cmd. line: -v)
dns=no          # (cmd. line: -r)
rev_dns=no      # (cmd. line: -R)
listen=udp:10.100.100.1:5060

loadmodule "modules/dbtext/dbtext.so"
loadmodule "modules/sl/sl.so"
loadmodule "modules/tm/tm.so"
loadmodule "modules/rr/rr.so"
loadmodule "modules/maxfwd/maxfwd.so"
loadmodule "modules/usrloc/usrloc.so"
loadmodule "modules/registrar/registrar.so"
loadmodule "modules/textops/textops.so"
loadmodule "modules/textops/mi_fifo.so"
loadmodule "modules/auth/auth.so"
loadmodule "modules/auth_db/auth_db.so"

setting module-specific parameters

-- mi_fifo params --

modparam("mi_fifo", "fifo_name", "/tmp/opensips_fifo")

-- usrloc params --

modparam("usrloc", "db_mode", 2)
modparam("usrloc|auth_db", "db_url", "text:///tmp/opensipsdb")

modparam("auth_db", "calculate_ha1", 1)
modparam("auth_db", "password_column", "password")
modparam("auth_db", "user_column", "username")
modparam("auth_db", "domain_column", "domain")

route{
// initial sanity checks -- messages with max_forwards==0, or excessively long requests
if (!mf_process_maxfwd_header("10")) {
sl_send_reply("483","Too Many Hops");
exit;
};
if ($ml &gt;=  65535 ) {
sl_send_reply("513", "Message too big");
exit;
};

// we record-route all messages -- to make sure that subsequent messages will go through this proxy;
if (!$rm=="REGISTER") record_route();
<pre><code>// subsequent messages withing a dialog should take the path determined by record-routing
if (loose_route()) {
    // mark routing logic in request
    append_hf("P-hint: rr-enforced\r\n");
    route(1);
    exit;
};

if (!is_myself("$rd")) {
    // mark routing logic in request
    append_hf("P-hint: outbound\r\n");
    route(1);
    exit;
};

//if the request is for other domain use UsrLoc 
if (is_myself("$rd")) {
    if ($rm=="REGISTER") {
        # digest authentication
        if (!www_authorize("", "subscriber")) {
            www_challenge("", "0");
            exit;
        };

        save("location");
        exit;
    };

    lookup("aliases");
    if (!is_myself("$rd")) {
        append_hf("P-hint: outbound alias\r\n");
        route(1);
        exit;
    };

    # native SIP destinations are handled using our USRLOC DB
    if (!lookup("location")) {
        sl_send_reply("404", "Not Found");
        exit;
    };
};
append_hf("P-hint: usrloc applied\r\n");
route(1);</code></pre>
}

route[1]
{
if (!t_relay()) {
sl_reply_error();
};
}


Opensips

It is an multi-functional, multi-purpose SIP server especially used in VoIP landscape as standalone SIP server or SBC ( Session Border Controller ) for inbound and outbound traffic by carriers, telecoms backend layers or ITSPs for call routing and trunking solutions. It can be deployed with Class4/5 Platforms, SIP Trunking , hosted or IP PBX setup , existing gateways/ Session Border Controllers, Application Servers, proxy server, Front-End Load Balancers, IMS Platforms, Call Center etc.

Combination of opensips working scenarios scripts with code is at https://github.com/altanai/opensipsexamples.

Features

Due to its very flexible and customisable routing engine it can be used in number of scenarios such as an SIP proxy or a  router and due to its high throughput it is widely recommended as an enterprise grade inbound/outbound proxy server.

  • Registrar
  • Router / proxy (lcr, dynamic routing, dialplan features)
  • Redirect server
  • Presence agent
  • Back-to-back User Agent
  • IM server
  • SIP to SMS gateway (bidirectional)
  • SIP to XMPP gateway for presence and IM (bidirectional)
  • Load-balancer or dispatcher
  • Inbound/front end for gateways/asterisk
  • SIP NAT traversal unit
  • Application server with custom logic

Since Opensips has emerged as a resilent SIP server , it is also used in specific usecases such as
– DID ( Direct Inward dialling ) for SIP trunking solutions ,
– Local Number Portability (LNP) providers,
– Canonical Name (CNAME) providers etc

It can act as Registrar with NAT traversal abilities (STUN, TURN, SIP pinging)

UDP , TCP , TLS , SCTP and WS transports over both IPv4 and IPv6
Additionally it can be connected to multiple networks ( Multihomed ) and do IP authentication or IP blacklisting

Class 4 routing capabilities in opensips include SIP aliases, Direct Inward Dialing , Speed dial, CPL,vDialplan , dispatcher with various algorithms, prefix-based routing to multiple carriers , failover support,
Load balancing , ENUM-based or Geolocation-based routing etc.
Some of the Class 5 capabilities in opensips are B2B , call queuing
UAC registration , authentication, mangling, White/Black list

SIP SIMPLE features as messaging , Presence , Busy Lamp Field (BLF), Shared Call/Line Appearance (SCA) , Bridged Line Appearance (BLA) , Message Waiting notifications (MWI), XCAP , Resource List Server ( RLS ) , XMPP , SMS gateway (AT and SMPP)

Although opensips has no built-in media capabilities, but it modules for external media engines for Media relaying (RTPProxy, MediaProxy, RTPEngine), Media transcoding (Sangoma D1 cards) , Codec manipulation.

I have explained the usage of these server components in my previous article on  SIP entities and Server here https://telecom.altanai.com/2013/07/13/sip-entities/

Modular Arhitecture

Opensips has majorly 2 parts core and addon-modules.

Opensips Core part is only a proxy stateless SIP server . It contains

  • SIP transport layer which supports UDP, TCP, TLS and WS for SIP. As per the listener in routing script transport protocols is selected .
  • SIP factory — the message parser and builder which can be used to add new headers or remove existing ones.
  • Routing script parser and interpreter for the routing script which loads it to the memory at the startup time. To load a new script server restart is required.
  • Memory and locking manager for the memory allocation and locking to prevent deadlocks and starvation. Although these arn’t accesible by route scripting, it can be configured at compile time.
  • Core script functions and variables which can be used in routing scripts in addition to the functions exported by add-on modules.

Interfaces

Events Interface

Used to notify external applications about events triggered internal to OpenSIPS such as
core events – E_CORE_THRESHOLD ,E_CORE_PKG_THRESHOLD , E_CORE_SHM_THRESHOLD , modules events , or even a custom event using raise_event() command

Statistics Interface

Provide insights to statistics of opensips in numerical results which could be used for services like  monitoring, load evaluation, realtime integration etc. The statictsics can be of two kinds :
1. counter like – variables that keep counting things that happened in OpenSIPS, like received requests, processed dialogs, failed DB queries, etc
2. computed values – variables that are calculated in realtime, like how much memory is used, the current load, active dialogs, active transactions, etc

These variable would reset form 0 at start sometimes even during runtime.

Binary Internal Interface

Provider communication between individual OpenSIPS instances. Used in cases such as failovers where dialogs needs to persist for service continuity. Hence with this interface one can replicate all the events related to the runtime data (creation / updating / deletion) to a backup OpenSIPS instance.

SQL interface and NoSQL interface

SQL interfaces provides interaction with Sql DB drivers and services such as MySQL, Postgres, Oracle, Berkeley, unixODBC etc , while NoSQL interface provides access to Redis, CouchBase, Cassandra, MongoDB, Memcached, and other databases which are more frequently implemented as external caches.

AAA interface definition

Currently, OpenSIPS supports the RADIUS driver for the AAA interface with upcoming support for DIAMETER.

Management interface

Allows the external applications to trigger predefined commands
Push data like setting a debug level, registering a contact etc
Fetch data like registered users, ongoing calls, get statistics etc
Trigger an internal action as reloading the data, sending a message so on

1. Functional SIP modules

SIP signalling modules such as B2B_ENTITIES , B2B_LOGIC , CALL CENTER ( for Inbound call center system ) , DIALOG , NAT_TRAVERSAL , NATHELPER
OPTIONS , REGISTRAR ,SIGNALING , UAC_REGISTRANT
TM (Transaction/stateful module) , SL (Stateless replier ) , SMS (SIP-to-SMS IM gateway)

SIP Routing modules such as CARRIERROUTE ( routing extension suitable for carriers) , CPL_C ( Call Processing Langugage interpreter ) ,
DISPATCHER , DROUTING ( Dynamic Routing / LCR ) , EMERGENCY ,ENUM ,
JABBER (JABBER IM and PRESENCE interconnection ) , IMC ( Instant Messaging Conferencing ),
LOAD_BALANCER , MSILO (SIP message silo) , RR ( Record-Route) , SCRIPT_HELPER ( Embedded SIP routing logic and dialog management) , OSP ( Open Settlement Protocol )

SIP messaging related , COMPRESSION , DIVERSION , IDENTITY ,MAXFWD , MANGLER
PATH , SIPMSGOPS ( SIP operations ) , TOPOLOGY_HIDING ,
UAC , UAC_AUTH , UAC_REDIRECT
URI , SST ( SIP Session Timer support )

Presence Modules like PRESENCE , PRESENCE_CALLINFO , PRESENCE_DIALOGINFO, PRESENCE_MWI (for Message Waiting Indication ) , PRESENCE_XCAPDIFF (for XCAP-DIFF event) , PRESENCE_XML
PUA , PUA_BLA , PUA_DIALOGINFO , PUA_MI , PUA_USRLOC , PUA_XMPP
B2B_SCA ( Back-to-Back Shared Call ), RLS ( Resource List Server )
XCAP , XCAP_CLIENT

2. Scripting modules

Script helper modules such as JSON , CFGUTILS , EXEC , TEXTOPS , AVPOPS , REGEX, MATHOPS , BENCHMARK ,
CARRIERROUTE , GFLAGS (Global shared flags )
PYTHON , LUA ,PERL , MMGEOIP ( MaxMind GeoIP )

Auth modules such as AUTH , AUTH_AAA ,AUTH_DB , PERMISSIONS

Accounting & Billing modules aas ACC ,CALL CONTROL

Dialplan Modules like ALIAS_DB , DIALPLAN , DOMAIN ( Multi-domain support ) , DOMAINPOLICY ,
GROUP , USERBLACKLIST , SPEEDDIAL ,PEERING ( Radius peering )

Data caching as DNS_CACHE , USRLOC ,SQL_CACHER

Traffic shaping module as PIKE ( Flood detector module ), QOS ,RATELIMIT ,FRAUD_DETECTION

3. Database modules

For SQL – DB_BERKELEY , DB_CACHEDB , DB_FLATSTORE , DB_HTTP , DB_MYSQL , DB_ORACLE ,DB_PERLVDB , DB_POSTGRES , DB_SQLITE
DB_TEXT , DB_UNIXODBC , DB_VIRTUAL

For noSQL – CACHEDB_CASSANDRA ,CACHEDB_COUCHBASE ,CACHEDB_LOCAL ,CACHEDB_MEMCACHED , CACHEDB_MONGODB , CACHEDB_REDIS , CACHEDB_SQL

4. External Integration modules

OpenSIPS API as EVENT_DATAGRAM , EVENT_FLATSTORE ( Text/File backend for events ), EVENT_ROUTE ,EVENT_RABBITMQ
EVENT_VIRTUAL ( Aggregator of event backends failover & balancing), EVENT_XMLRPC
MI_DATAGRAM ( DATAGRAM unix and network support for Management Interface )
MI_FIFO , MI_HTTP , MI_JSON , MI_XMLRPC_NG
HTTPD , PI_HTTP ( Provisioning Interface ) , STATISTICS

Media Relays
MEDIAPROXY – NAT traversal module
RTPENGINE – Connector to RTPengine external RTP relay
RTPPROXY – Connector to RTPproxy external RTP relay

non-SIP protocols modules such as AAA_RADIUS , H350 , LDAP – LDAP connector , stable
REST_CLIENT , SEAS ( Sip Express Application Server interface module), SIPCAPTURE , SIPTRACE ,
SNGTC ( Voice Transcoding in OpenSIPS using Sangoma hardware ),
SNMPStats , STUN , XMPP ( SIP-to-XMPP Gateway )

5. OpenSIPS protocols and infrastructure

CLUSTERER , TLS_MGM , PROTO_BIN ( Binary INterface protocol module to implements inter-OPENSIPS communication )
PROTO_HEP , PROTO_SCTP , PROTO_TCP, PROTO_TLS , PROTO_UDP , PROTO_WS , PROTO_WSS

How to Install and use Opensips on your VoIP platform

Install from git repo

git clone git@github.com:OpenSIPS/opensips.git opensips_head
install gcc
make all

Install from apt

apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 049AD65B
echo "deb http://apt.opensips.org trusty 2.4-releases" >/etc/apt/sources.list.d/opensips.list

check if opensips is running

ps -uax|grep opensips

Configuration ( opensips.cfg )

configuring compilation flags for various compile time options use menuconfig.

For this first install the ncurses development library

apt-get install libncurses5-dev
make menuconfig

Running menuconfig post installation from path use osipsconfig

compiling modules

prerequisites

apt-get install build-essential openssl bison flex
make && make install

After succesfull installation check version

opensips -V
version: opensips 2.2.7 (x86_64/linux)
flags: STATS: On, DISABLE_NAGLE, USE_MCAST, SHM_MMAP, PKG_MALLOC, F_MALLOC, FAST_LOCK-ADAPTIVE_WAIT
ADAPTIVE_WAIT_LOOPS=1024, MAX_RECV_BUFFER_SIZE 262144, MAX_LISTEN 16, MAX_URI_SIZE 1024, BUF_SIZE 65535
poll method support: poll, epoll_lt, epoll_et, sigio_rt, select.
main.c compiled on  with gcc 4.8

A config file opensips.config has 3 main logical parts :

1.global parameters – network listeners, available transport protocols, forking (and number of processes), the logging

2.modules section – the modules that are to be loaded  with path to their .so file

3.routing logic – logic for routing sip traffic

Routes

OpenSIPS routing logic uses several types of routes. Each type of route is triggered by a certain event and allows you to process a certain type of message (request or reply).

route
SIP requests routing. The main ‘route’ block identified by ‘route{…}’ or ‘route[0]{…}’ is executed for each SIP request.
To send a reply or forward the request, explicit actions must be called inside the route block. in example below which sends 200 ok reply for each options request.

route {
if(is_method("OPTIONS")) {
sl_send_reply("200", "ok");
exit();
}
route(1);
}
route[1] {
forward();
}

branch_route
Handles different branches of a SIP request. if the branch is not dropped the branch will be automatically sent out. It is executed only by TM module after it was armed via t_on_branch(“branch_route_index”).

if (is_method("INVITE|BYE|SUBSCRIBE|UPDATE")) {
if(!t_is_set("branch_route")) t_on_branch("MANAGE_BRANCH");
}
branch_route[MANAGE_BRANCH] {
xdbg("new branch [$T_branch_idx] to $ru\n");
route(NATMANAGE);
}

or lookup location and discard branches where uri matches ip 1.2.3.4 by using drop()

route {
lookup("location");
t_on_branch("op3");
if(!t_relay()) {
sl_send_reply("500", "relaying failed");
}
}
branch_route[op3] {
if(uri=~"1\.2\.3\.4") {
drop();
}
}

failure_route
Failed transaction routing block. It contains a set of actions to be taken each transaction that received only negative replies (>=300) for all branches which completes the transaction. The ‘failure_route’ is executed only by TM module after it was armed via t_on_failure(“failure_route_index”).

if (is_method("INVITE")) {
if(!t_is_set("failure_route")) t_on_failure("MANAGE_FAILURE");
}

failure_route[MANAGE_FAILURE] {
route(NATMANAGE);
if (t_is_canceled()) {
exit;
}
}

or on failure relay to voice mail

route {
lookup("location");
t_on_failure("op1");
if(!t_relay()) {
sl_send_reply("500", "relaying failed");
}
}
failure_route[op1] {
if(is_method("INVITE")) {
t_relay("udp:voicemail.server.com:5060");
}
}

onreply_route
Reply routing block. It can be stateful (if bound to a transaction) or stateless (if global reply route).
If the reply is not dropped (only provisional replies can be), it will be injected and processed by the transaction engine. There are three types of onreply routes:

global – catches all replies and uses simple definition ‘onreply_route {…}’ or ‘onreply_route[0] {…}’.
Exmaple for “global” reply route set the whole transaction

route {
seturi("sip:bob@opensips.org");  first branch
append_branch("sip:alice@opensips.org");  second branch
t_on_reply("global");
t_on_branch("1");
t_relay();
}

onreply_route {
xlog("OpenSIPS received a reply from $si\n");
}

onreply_route[global] {
if (t_check_status("1[0-9][0-9]")) {
setflag(1);
log("provisional reply received\n");
if (t_check_status("183"))
drop;
}
}

per request/transaction – it catches all received replies belonging to a certain transaction and uses “t_on_reply()” at request time, in REQUEST ROUTE – named ‘onreply_route[N] {…}’.

per branch – it catches only the replies that belong to a certain branch from a transaction via “t_on_reply()” ) at request time, but in BRANCH ROUTE, when a certain outgoing branch is processed – named ‘onreply_route[N] {…}’.
Certain ‘onreply_route’ blocks can be executed by TM module for special replies. For this, the ‘onreply_route’ must be armed for the SIP requests whose replies should be processed within it, via t_on_reply(“onreply_route_index”).

Exmaple of reply route set for this branch only


branch_route[1] {
if ($rU=="alice")
t_on_reply("alice");
}

onreply_route[alice] {
xlog("received reply on the branch from alice\n");
}

error_route

executed automatically on meeting and error such as parsing error in SIP request processing, script assert failure. Performs error handling . The Default action is to discard request. In error_route, the following pseudo-variables are available to get access to error details:

$(err.class) - the class of error (now is '1' for parsing errors)
$(err.level) - severity level for the error
$(err.info) - text describing the error
$(err.rcode) - recommended reply code
$(err.rreason) - recommended reply reason phrase
error_route {
xlog("--- error route class=$(err.class) level=$(err.level)
info=$(err.info) rcode=$(err.rcode) rreason=$(err.rreason) ---\n");
xlog("--- error from [$si:$sp]\n+++++\n$mb\n++++\n");
sl_send_reply("$err.rcode", "$err.rreason");
exit;
}

local_route

executed automatically as TM created a new request, internally (no UAC side). This is a route intended to be used for message inspection, accounting and for applying last changes on the message headers. Routing and signaling functions are not allowed.

local_route {
if (is_method("INVITE") && $ru=~"@foreign.com") {
append_hf("P-hint: foreign request\r\n");
exit;
}
if (is_method("BYE") ) {
acc_log_request("internally generated BYE");
}
}

startup_route
Executed only once when OpenSIPS is started and before the processing of SIP messages begins. Used in initilization cases cases such as loading some data in the cache.

startup_route {
avp_db_query("select gwlist where ruleid==1",$avp(i:100));
cache_store("local", "rule1", "$avp(i:100)");
}

timer_route
Route executed periodically at a configured interval of time specified next to the name(in seconds).

timer_route[gw_update, 300] {
avp_db_query("select gwlist where ruleid==1",$avp(i:100));
$shv(i:100) =$avp(i:100);
}

event_route
execute script code when an event is triggered. If no way to handle the event specified, default will be synchronously.
Triggered by the event_route module when an event is raised by the OpenSIPS Event Interface such as event raised by the pike module when it decides an ip should be blocked called E_PIKE_BLOCKED or E_SCRIPT_EVENT etc ( checke events interface for more events)

event_route[E_PIKE_BLOCKED] {
xlog("The E_PIKE_BLOCKED event was raised\n");
}
event_route[E_PIKE_BLOCKED, async] {
xlog("The E_PIKE_BLOCKED event was raised\n");
}

Scripting Language

Opensips scripting provided more advanced controls

1. Core Keywords

Keywords specific to SIP messages which can be used mainly in ‘if’ expressions.
af – address family of the received SIP message. It is INET if the message was received over IPv4 or INET6 if the message was received over IPv6.

if(af==INET6) {
log("Message received over IPv6 link\n");
};

dst_ip – IP of the local interface where the SIP message was received.

if(dst_ip==127.0.0.1) {
log("message received on loopback interface\n");
};

dst_port – local port where the SIP packet was received

if(dst_port==5061)
{
log("message was received on port 5061\n");
};

from_uri – reference to the URI of ‘From’ header.

if(is_method("INVITE") &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; from_uri=~".*@opensips.org")
{
log("the caller is from opensips.org\n");
};

method – SIP method of the message.

if(method=="REGISTER")
{
log("this SIP request is a REGISTER message\n");
};

msg:len – the size of the message

if(msg:len&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;2048)
{
sl_send_reply("413", "message too large");
exit;
};

$retcode – value returned by last function executed like $?. If tested after a call of a route, it is the value retuned by that route.

route {
route(1);
if($retcode==1)
{
log("The request is an INVITE\n");
};
}

route[1] {
if(is_method("INVITE"))
return(1);
return(2);
}

proto – transport protocol of the SIP message.

if(proto==UDP)
{
log("SIP message received over UDP\n");
};

status – status code of the reply.

if(status=="200")
{
log("this is a 200 OK reply\n");
};

1.10 src_ip – source IP address

if(src_ip==127.0.0.1)
{
log("the message was sent from localhost!\n");
};

1.11 src_port – source port of the SIP message (from which port the message was sent by previous hop).

if(src_port==5061)
{
log("message sent from port 5061\n");
}

1.12 to_uri – URI from To header.

if(to_uri=~"sip:.+@opensips.org")
{
log("this is a request for opensips.org users\n");
};

1.13 uri – request URI.

if(uri=~"sip:.+@opensips.org")
{
log("this is a request for opensips.org users\n");
};

2. Core Values

Values that can be used in ‘if’ expressions to check against Core Keywords

INET – IPv4 connection. , INET6 – IPv6 connection , TCP , UDP

max_len – test message’s size.

if(msg:len&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;max_len)
{
sl_send_reply("413", "message too large to be forwarded over UDP without fragmentation");
exit;
}

myself – reference to the list of local IP addresses, hostnames and aliases that has been set in OpenSIPS configuration file. This lists contain the domains served by OpenSIPS.

if(uri==myself) {
log("the request is for local processing\n");
};

null – reset the value of a per-script variable or to delete an avp.

$avp(i:12) = null;
$var(x) = null;

3. Core parameters

abort_on_assert – Set to true in order to make OpenSIPS shut down immediately in case a script assert fails.

abort_on_assert = true // default is false

advertised_address – address advertised in Via header and other destination lumps (e.g RR header).

advertised_port – port advertised in Via header and other destination lumps (e.g. RR).

alias – set alias hostnames for the server

alias=udp:company.tel.com:5060
alias=tcp:company.tel.com:5060

auto_aliases – to control if aliases should be automatically discovered from DNS lookup and added during fixing listening sockets.

auto_aliases=no // default value is no
auto_aliases=0

cfg_file – Returns the name of the corresponding OpenSIPS config file

cfg_line – corresponding line inside the OpenSIPS config file.
check_via – Check if the address in top most via of replies is local.

check_via=1 // Default value is 0 (check disabled)

children – Number of worker processes (children) to be created for each UDP or SCTP interface you have defined. children=16 // Default value is 8

chroot – If set, OpenSIPS will chroot (change root directory) to this valid path in the system value.

debug_mode – This option will automatically force:

  • staying in foreground
  • set logging level to 4 (debug)
  • set logging to standard error
  • enable core dumping
  • set UDP worker processes to 2
  • set TCP worker processes to 2
  • Default value is false/0 (disabled).

db_version_table – name of the table version to be used by the DB API to check the version of the used tables.

db_default_url – default DB URL to be used by modules if no per-module URL is given.

db_default_url=”mysql://opensips:opensipsrw@localhost/opensips”

db_max_async_connections – Maximum number of TCP connections opened from a single OpenSIPS worker to each individual SQL backend. Default value is 10.
Individual backends are determined from DB URLs as follows: [ scheme, user, pass, host, port, database ]

disable_503_translation – If ‘yes’, OpenSIPS will not translate the received 503 replies into 500 replies .
disable_core_dump – By default core dump limits are set to unlimited or a high enough value. Set this config variable to ‘yes’ to disable core dump-ing (will set core limits to 0).

disable_core_dump=yes //Default value is 'no'.

disable_dns_blacklist– DNS resolver, when configured with failover, can automatically store in a temporary blacklist the failed destinations. This will prevent (for a limited period of time) OpenSIPS to send requests to destination known as failed. So, the blacklist can be used as a memory for the DNS resolver.

The temporary blacklist created by DNS resolver is named “dns” and it is by default selected for usage (no need use the use_blacklist()) function. The rules from this list have a life time of 4 minutes – you can change it at compile time, from resolve.c . Can be ‘yes’ or ‘no’. By default the blacklist is disabled (Default value is ‘yes’).

disable_dns_failover – By default DNS-based failover is enabled. Set this config variable to ‘yes’ to disable the DNS-based failover. This is a global option, affecting the core and the modules also.

disable_stateless_fwd – controls the handling of stateless replies:

  • yes – drop stateless replies if stateless fwd functions (like forward) are not used in script
  • no – forward stateless replies

dns – controls if the SIP server should attempt to lookup its own domain name in DNS. Default is no.

dns_retr_time – Time in seconds before retrying a dns request. Default value is system specific, depends also on the ‘/etc/resolv.conf’ content (usually 5s).

dns_retr_no – Number of dns retransmissions before giving up.

dns_servers_no – How many dns servers from the ones defined in ‘/etc/resolv.conf’ will be used. Default value is to use all of them.

dns_try_ipv6 – If it is set to ‘yes’ and a DNS lookup fails, it will retry it for ipv6 (AAAA record). Default value is ‘no’.

dns_try_naptr – Disables the NAPTR lookups when doing DNS based routing for SIP requests – if disabled, the DNS lookup will start with SRV lookups. By default it is enabled, value ‘yes’.

dns_use_search_list

dst_blacklist – static (read-only) IP/destination blacklist. These lists can be selected from script (at runtime) to filter the outgoing requests, based on IP, protocol, port, etc.

filter out requests going to ips of my gws

dst_blacklist = gw:{( tcp , 192.168.2.200 , 5060 , "" ),( any , 192.168.2.201 , 0 , "" )}

block requests going to prohibited networks

dst_blacklist = net_filter:{ ( any , 192.168.1.120/255.255.255.0 , 0 , "" )}

block message requests with nasty words

dst_blacklist = msg_filter:{ ( any , 192.168.20.0/255.255.255.0 , 0 , "MESSAGE*ugly_word" )}

block requests not going to a specific subnet

dst_blacklist = net_filter2:{ !( any , 192.268.30.0/255.255.255.0 , 0 , "" )}

Each rule is defined by:

  • protocol : TCP, UDP, TLS or “any” for anything
  • port : number or 0 for any
  • ip/mask
  • test patter – is a filename like matching (see “man 3 fnmatch”) applied on the outgoing request buffer (first_line+hdrs+body)

enable_asserts – Set to true in order to enable the assert script statement.

event_pkg_threshold – A number representing the percentage threshold above which the E_CORE_PKG_THRESHOLD event is raised, warning about low amount of free private memory. It accepts integer values between 0 and 100. Default value is 0 ( event disabled ).

event_pkg_threshold = 90

event_shm_threshold
A number representing the percentage threshold above which the E_CORE_SHM_THRESHOLD event is raised, warning about low amount of free shared memory. It accepts integer values between 0 and 100.
Default value is 0 ( event disabled ).

event_shm_threshold = 90

exec_dns_threshold – A number representing the maximum number of microseconds a DNS query is expected to last. Anything above the set number will trigger a warning message to the logging facility. Default value is 0 ( logging disabled ).

exec_dns_threshold = 60000

exec_msg_threshold – A number representing the maximum number of microseconds the processing of a SIP msg is expected to last. Anything above the set number will trigger a warning message to the logging facility. Aside from the message and the processing time, the most time consuming function calls from the script will also be logged. Default value is 0 ( logging disabled ).

exec_msg_threshold = 60000

include_file – load additional routes/blocks with file path

include_file "proxy_regs.cfg"

import_file – Same as include_file but will not throw an error if file is not found.

import_file "proxy_regs.cfg"

listen – Set the network addresses the SIP server should listen to. syntax is protocol:address[:port]

The listen definition may accept several optional parameters for:

configuring an advertised IP and port only for an interface. Syntax “AS 11.22.33.44:5060”
setting a different number of children for this interface only (for UDP, SCTP and HEP_UDP interfaces only). This will override the global “children” parameter. Syntax “use_children 5”
Remember that the above parameters only affect the interface they are configured for; if they are not defined for a given interface, the global values will be used instead.

listen = udp:*
listen = udp:eth1
listen = tcp:eth1:5062
listen = tls:localhost:5061
listen = hep_udp:10.10.10.10:5064
listen = ws:127.0.0.1:5060 use_children 5
listen = sctp:127.0.0.1:5060 as 99.88.44.33:5060 use_children 3
On startup, OpenSIPS reports all the interfaces that it is listening on. The TCP engine processes will be created regardless if you specify only UDP interfaces here.
3.41 log_facility – control the facility for logging in syslog. Default value is LOG_DAEMON.

log_facility=LOG_LOCAL0

3.42 log_level – logging level (how verbose OpenSIPS should be). Higher values make OpenSIPS to print more messages.

log_level=1 — print only important messages (like errors or more critical situations) recommended for running proxy as daemon
log_level=4 — print a lot of debug messages use it only when doing debugging sessions

Actual values are:

-3 – Alert level
-2 – Critical level
-1 – Error level
1 – Warning level
2 – Notice level
3 – Info level
4 – Debug level
The ‘log_level’ parameter is usually used in concordance with ‘log_stderror’ parameter.

Value of ‘log_level’ parameter can also be get and set dynamically using log_level Core MI function or $log_level script variable.
3.43 log_name – Set the id to be printed in syslog. The value must be a string and has effect only when OpenSIPS runs in daemon mode (fork=yes), after daemonize. Default value is argv[0].

log_name=”osips-5070″

3.44 log_stderror – write log messages to standard error. Possible values are:
– “yes” – write the messages to standard error
– “no” – write the messages to syslog , also the default

max_while_loops – maximum loops that can be done within a “while”. Comes as a protection to avoid infinite loops in config file execution. Default is 100.

max_while_loops=200

maxbuffer – size in bytes not to be exceeded during the auto-probing procedure of discovering the maximum buffer size for receiving UDP messages. Default value is 262144.

maxbuffer=65536

mem-group – Defines a group of modules (by name) to get separate memory statistics.In order for the feature to work you have to run “make generate-mem-stats” and complile with the variable SHM_EXTRA_STATS defined and complile with the variable SHM_SHOW_DEFAULT_GROUP definedwill generate the statistics for the default group

mem-group = “interest”: “core” “tm”
mem-group = “runtime”: “dialog” “usrloc” “tm”

mem_warming – Only relevant when the HP_MALLOC compile flag is enabled. If set to “on”, on each startup, OpenSIPS will attempt to restore the memory fragmentation pattern it had before the stop/restart.
Memory warming is useful when dealing with high volumes of traffic (thousands of cps on multi-core machines – the more cores, the more useful), because processes must mutually exclude themselves when chopping up the initial big memory chunk. By performing fragmentation on startup, OpenSIPS will also behave optimally in the first minute(s) after a restart. Fragmentation usually lasts a few seconds (e.g. ~5 seconds on an 8GB shm pool and 2.4Ghz CPU) – traffic will not be processed at all during this period.

mem_warming = on

mem_warming_percentage – How much of OpenSIPS’s memory should be fragmented with the pattern of the previous run, upon a restart.

mem_warming_percentage = 50 //Default value: 75

mem_warming_pattern_file – Default value: “CFG_DIR/mem_warming_pattern”.The memory fragmentation pattern of a previous OpenSIPS run. Used at startup, if mem_warming is enabled.

mem_warming_pattern_file = “/var/tmp/my_memory_pattern”

memdump | mem_dump – Log level to print memory status information (runtime and shutdown). Default: memdump=L_DBG (4)

memlog | mem_lo – Log level to print memory debug info. It has to be less than the value of ‘log_level’ parameter if you want memory info to be logged. Default: memlog=L_DBG (4)

mcast_loopback – If set to ‘yes’, multicast datagram are sent over loopback. Default value is ‘no’.

mcast_loopback=yes

mcast_ttl – Set the value for multicast ttl. Default value is OS specific (usually 1).

mhomed – Set the server to try to locate outbound interface on multihomed host. By default is not (0) – it is rather time consuming.

mhomed=1

mpath – Set the module search path. This can be used to simplify the loadmodule parameter

mpath="/usr/local/lib/opensips/modules"<br> loadmodule "mysql.so"<br> loadmodule "uri.so"<br> loadmodule "uri_db.so"<br> loadmodule "sl.so"<br> loadmodule "tm.so"<br> ...

open_files_limit – If set and bigger than the current open file limit, OpenSIPS will try to increase its open file limit to this number. Note: OpenSIPS must be started as root to be able to increase a limit past the hard limit (which, for open files, is 1024 on most systems).

open_files_limit=2048

poll_method – (deprecated post 2.2) poll method to be used by the I/O internal reactor – by default the best one for the current OS is selected. The available types are: poll, epoll_lt, sigio_rt, select, kqueue, /dev/poll.

Starting with version 2.2, epoll_et is deprecated and if it is used in the script, it will be automatically replaced by epoll_lt.

poll_method=select

port – port the SIP server listens to. The default value for it is 5060.

reply_to_via – If it is set to 1, any local reply is sent to the address advertised in top most Via of the request. Default value is 0 (off).

reply_to_via=0

query_buffer_size -If set to a value greater than 1, inserts to DB will not be flushed one by one. Rows to be inserted will be kept in memory until until they gather up to query_buffer_size rows, and only then they will be flushed to the database.

query_buffer_size=5

query_flush_time – If query_buffer_size is set to a value greater than 1, a timer will trigger once every query_flush_time seconds, ensuring that no row will be kept for too long in memory.

query_flush_time=10

rev_dns – should the SIP server attempt to lookup its own IP address in DNS. If this parameter is set to yes and the IP address is not in DNS a warning is printed on syslog and a “received=” field is added to the via header. Default is no.

server_header – The body of Server header field generated by OpenSIPS when it sends a request as UAS. It defaults to “OpenSIPS (<version> (<arch>/<os>))”.

server_header=”Server: My Company SIP Proxy”

server_signature – control “Server” header in any locally generated message. If it is enabled (default=yes) a header is generated as Server: OpenSIPS (0.9.5 (i386/linux))

shm_hash_split_percentage – Only relevant when the HP_MALLOC compile flag is enabled. It controls how many memory buckets will be optimized. (e.g. setting it to 2% will optimize the first 81 most used buckets as frequency). The default value is 1.

shm_secondary_hash_size – Only relevant when the HP_MALLOC compile flag is enabled. It represents the optimization factor of a single bucket (e.g. setting it to 4 will cause the optimized buckets to be further split into 4). The default value is 8.

sip_warning – Can be 0 or 1. If set to 1 (default value is 0) a ‘Warning’ header is added to each reply generated by OpenSIPS. The header contains several details that help troubleshooting using the network traffic dumps.

sip_warning=0

tcp_children – Number of children processes to be created for reading from TCP connections. If no value is explicitly set, the same number of TCP children as UDP children (see “children” parameter) will be used.

tcp_children=4

tcp_accept_aliases – If enabled, OpenSIPS will enforce RFC 5923 behaviour when detecting an “;alias” Via header field parameter and will reuse any TCP (or TLS, WS, WSS) connection opened for such SIP requests (source IP + Via port + proto) when sending other SIP requests backwards, towards the same (source IP + Via port + proto) pair. Default value 0 (disabled).

tcp_listen_backlog – maximum length for the queue of pending connections for the TCP listeners. Default configured value is 10.

tcp_connect_timeout – Time in milliseconds before an ongoing blocking attempt to connect will be aborted. Default value is 100ms.

tcp_connect_timeout = 5

tcp_connection_lifetime – Lifetime in seconds for TCP sessions. Default value is defined in tcp_conn.h: define DEFAULT_TCP_CONNECTION_LIFETIME 120.

tcp_connection_lifetime = 3600

tcp_max_connections – maximum number of tcp connections. Default is defined in tcp_conn.h: define DEFAULT_TCP_MAX_CONNECTIONS 2048

tcp_max_connections = 4096

tcp_max_msg_time – maximum number of seconds that a SIP message is expected to arrive via TCP. Default value is 4

tcp_max_msg_time = 8

tcp_no_new_conn_bflag -A branch flag to be used as marker to instruct OpenSIPS not to attempt to open a new TCP connection when delivering a request, but only to reuse an existing one (if available). If no existing conn, a generic send error will be returned.

This is intended to be used in NAT scenarios, where makes no sense to open a TCP connection towards a destination behind a NAT (like TCP connection created during registration was lost, so there is no way to contact the device until it re-REGISTER). Also this can be used to detect when a NATed registered user lost his TCP connection, so that opensips can disable his registration as useless.

 tcp_no_new_conn_bflag = TCP_NO_CONNECT<br> ...<br> route {<br> ...<br> if (isflagset(DST_NATED) &amp;&amp; $proto == "TCP")<br>     setbflag(TCP_NO_CONNECT);<br>     ...<br>     t_relay("0x02"); // no auto error reply<br>     $var(retcode) = $rc;<br>     if ($var(retcode) == -6) {<br>         xlog("unable to send request to destination");<br>         send_reply("404", "Not Found");<br>         exit;<br>     } else if ($var(retcode) &lt; 0) {<br>         sl_reply_error();<br>         exit;<br>     }<br> } 

3.77 tcp_threshold – A number representing the maximum number of microseconds sending of a TCP request is expected to last. Anything above the set number will trigger a warning message to the logging facility. Default value is 0 ( logging disabled ).

tcp_threshold = 60000

tcp_keepalive – Enable or disable TCP keepalive (OS level). Enabled by default.

tcp_keepalive = 1

tcp_keepcount -Number of keepalives to send before closing the connection (Linux only).

Default value: 0 (not set). Setting tcp_keepcount to any value will enable tcp_keepalive.

tcp_keepcount = 5

tcp_keepidle – Amount of time before OpenSIPS will start to send keepalives if the connection is idle (Linux only).
Default value: 0 (not set)

tcp_keepidle = 30

tcp_keepinterval – Interval between keepalive probes, if the previous one failed (Linux only).Default value: 0 (not set). Setting tcp_keepinterval to any value will enable tcp_keepalive.

tcp_keepinterval = 10

tls_ca_list

tls_certificate

tls_ciphers_list

tls_domain

tls_handshake_timeout

tls_log

tls_method

tls_port_no

tls_private_key

tls_require_certificate

tls_send_timeout

tls_verify

tos – TOS (Type Of Service) to be used for the sent IP packages (both TCP and UDP).

 tos=IPTOS_LOWDELAY<br> tos=0x10<br> tos=IPTOS_RELIABILITY

user_agent_header – The body of User-Agent header field generated by OpenSIPS when it sends a request as UAC. It defaults to “OpenSIPS (<version> (<arch>/<os>))”.

user_agent_header=”User-Agent: My Company SIP Proxy”

wdir – working directory used by OpenSIPS at runtime.

 wdir="/usr/local/opensips" 

xlog_buf_size – Default value: 4096

Size of the buffer used to print a single line on the chosen logging facility of OpenSIPS. If the buffer is too small, an overflow error will be printed, and the concerned line will be skipped.

xlog_buf_size = 8388608 #given in bytes

xlog_force_color

xlog_default_level -Default value for the logging level of the xlog core function, when the log_level parameter is omitted.

xlog_default_level = 2 #L_NOTICE // Default value: -1

Routes

OpenSIPS routing logic uses several types of routes. Each type of route is triggered by a certain event and allows you to process a certain type of message (request or reply).

  • route
    SIP requests routing. The main ‘route’ block identified by ‘route{…}’ or ‘route[0]{…}’ is executed for each SIP request.
    To send a reply or forward the request, explicit actions must be called inside the route block. in example below which sends 200 ok reply for each options request.
route {
if(is_method("OPTIONS")) {
sl_send_reply("200", "ok");
exit();
}
route(1);
}
route[1] {
forward();
}
  • branch_route
    Handles different branches of a SIP request. if the branch is not dropped the branch will be automatically sent out. It is executed only by TM module after it was armed via t_on_branch(“branch_route_index”).
if (is_method("INVITE|BYE|SUBSCRIBE|UPDATE")) {
if(!t_is_set("branch_route")) t_on_branch("MANAGE_BRANCH");
}
branch_route[MANAGE_BRANCH] {
xdbg("new branch [$T_branch_idx] to $ru\n");
route(NATMANAGE);
}

or lookup location and discard branches where uri matches ip 1.2.3.4 by using drop()

route {
lookup("location");
t_on_branch("op3");
if(!t_relay()) {
sl_send_reply("500", "relaying failed");
}
}
branch_route[op3] {
if(uri=~"1\.2\.3\.4") {
drop();
}
}
  • failure_route
    Failed transaction routing block. It contains a set of actions to be taken each transaction that received only negative replies (>=300) for all branches which completes the transaction. The ‘failure_route’ is executed only by TM module after it was armed via t_on_failure(“failure_route_index”).
if (is_method("INVITE")) {
if(!t_is_set("failure_route")) t_on_failure("MANAGE_FAILURE");
}

failure_route[MANAGE_FAILURE] {
route(NATMANAGE);
if (t_is_canceled()) {
exit;
}
}

or on failure relay to voice mail

route {
lookup("location");
t_on_failure("op1");
if(!t_relay()) {
sl_send_reply("500", "relaying failed");
}
}
failure_route[op1] {
if(is_method("INVITE")) {
t_relay("udp:voicemail.server.com:5060");
}
}
  • onreply_route
    Reply routing block. It can be stateful (if bound to a transaction) or stateless (if global reply route).
    If the reply is not dropped (only provisional replies can be), it will be injected and processed by the transaction engine. There are three types of onreply routes:

global – catches all replies and uses simple definition ‘onreply_route {…}’ or ‘onreply_route[0] {…}’.
Exmaple for “global” reply route set the whole transaction

route {
seturi("sip:bob@opensips.org");  first branch
append_branch("sip:alice@opensips.org");  second branch
t_on_reply("global");
t_on_branch("1");
t_relay();
}

onreply_route {
xlog("OpenSIPS received a reply from $si\n");
}

onreply_route[global] {
if (t_check_status("1[0-9][0-9]")) {
setflag(1);
log("provisional reply received\n");
if (t_check_status("183"))
drop;
}
}

per request/transaction – it catches all received replies belonging to a certain transaction and uses “t_on_reply()” at request time, in REQUEST ROUTE – named ‘onreply_route[N] {…}’.

per branch – it catches only the replies that belong to a certain branch from a transaction via “t_on_reply()” ) at request time, but in BRANCH ROUTE, when a certain outgoing branch is processed – named ‘onreply_route[N] {…}’.
Certain ‘onreply_route’ blocks can be executed by TM module for special replies. For this, the ‘onreply_route’ must be armed for the SIP requests whose replies should be processed within it, via t_on_reply(“onreply_route_index”).

Exmaple of reply route set for this branch only


branch_route[1] {
if ($rU=="alice")
t_on_reply("alice");
}

onreply_route[alice] {
xlog("received reply on the branch from alice\n");
}
  • error_route

executed automatically on meeting and error such as parsing error in SIP request processing, script assert failure. Performs error handling . The Default action is to discard request. In error_route, the following pseudo-variables are available to get access to error details:

$(err.class) - the class of error (now is '1' for parsing errors)
$(err.level) - severity level for the error
$(err.info) - text describing the error
$(err.rcode) - recommended reply code
$(err.rreason) - recommended reply reason phrase
error_route {
xlog("--- error route class=$(err.class) level=$(err.level)
info=$(err.info) rcode=$(err.rcode) rreason=$(err.rreason) ---\n");
xlog("--- error from [$si:$sp]\n+++++\n$mb\n++++\n");
sl_send_reply("$err.rcode", "$err.rreason");
exit;
}
  • local_route

executed automatically as TM created a new request, internally (no UAC side). This is a route intended to be used for message inspection, accounting and for applying last changes on the message headers. Routing and signaling functions are not allowed.

local_route {
if (is_method("INVITE") && $ru=~"@foreign.com") {
append_hf("P-hint: foreign request\r\n");
exit;
}
if (is_method("BYE") ) {
acc_log_request("internally generated BYE");
}
}
  • startup_route
    Executed only once when OpenSIPS is started and before the processing of SIP messages begins. Used in initilization cases cases such as loading some data in the cache.
startup_route {
avp_db_query("select gwlist where ruleid==1",$avp(i:100));
cache_store("local", "rule1", "$avp(i:100)");
}
  • timer_route
    Route executed periodically at a configured interval of time specified next to the name(in seconds).
timer_route[gw_update, 300] {
avp_db_query("select gwlist where ruleid==1",$avp(i:100));
$shv(i:100) =$avp(i:100);
}
  • event_route
    execute script code when an event is triggered. If no way to handle the event specified, default will be synchronously.
    Triggered by the event_route module when an event is raised by the OpenSIPS Event Interface such as event raised by the pike module when it decides an ip should be blocked called E_PIKE_BLOCKED or E_SCRIPT_EVENT etc ( checke events interface for more events)
event_route[E_PIKE_BLOCKED] {
xlog("The E_PIKE_BLOCKED event was raised\n");
}
event_route[E_PIKE_BLOCKED, async] {
xlog("The E_PIKE_BLOCKED event was raised\n");
}

opensipsctlrc

opensipsctlrc file controls the opensipsctl and osipsconsole utilities. It is a shell script utility to manage opensips from command line

opensipsctl can manage

  • Start, stop, and restart
  • Show, grant, and revoke ACLs Add, remove, and list aliases
  • Add, remove, and configure an AVP
  • Low Cost Route (LCR)
  • Remote Party Identity (RPID)
  • Add, remove, and list subscribers
  • Add, remove, and show the usrloc table in-Random Access Memory (RAM)
  • Monitor

Ref :

VOIP Call Metric Monitoring

Metrics for monitoring a VOIP call can be obtained from any node in media path of the call flow . Essentially used for analysis via calculation and aggregation , and sometimes used for realtime performance tracking and rectification too .

Rating Factor (R-Factor) and Mean Opinion Score (MOS) are two commonly-used measurements of overall VoIP call quality.

R-Factor: A value derived from metrics such as latency, jitter, and packet loss per ITU‑T Recommendation G.107. It assess the quality-of-experience for VoIP calls on your network. Typical scores range from 50 (bad) to 90 (excellent).

  • R factor of 90 , Mos is 4.3 ( Excellent )
  • R factor 50 , Mos is 2.6 ( Bad)

MOS: It is derived from the R-Factor per ITU‑T Recommendation G.10 which measures VoIP call quality. PacketShaper measures MOS using a scale of 10-50. To convert to a standard MOS score (which uses a scale of 1-5), divide the PacketShaper MOS value by 10.

ITU ?
The International Telecommunication Union is the United Nations specialised agency in the field of telecommunications, information and communication technologies (ICTs).

ITU-T ?
TU Telecommunication Standardisation Sector is responsible for studying technical, operating and tariff questions and issuing Recommendations on them with a view to standardising telecommunications on a worldwide basis.

MOS ( Mean Opinion Score )

MOS is terminology for audio, video and audiovisual quality expressions as per ITU-T P.800.1. It refers to listening, talking or conversational quality, whether they originate from subjective or objective models.

It provides provisions for identifiers regarding the audio bandwidth, the type of interface (electrical or acoustical) and the video resolution too , such as
MOS-AVQE for audiovisual quality;
MOS-CQE is for estimated conversational quality;
MOS-LQE for listening quality;
MOS-TQE is used for talking quality;
MOS-VQE depicts video quality;

For Audio Signal Speech Quality/ AV
– N denotes audio signals upto narrow-band (300-3400 Hz)
– W is for audio signals upto wideband (50-7000 Hz)
– S for upto super-wideband (20-14000 Hz)
– F is obtained for fullband (10-20000 Hz)

For Listening quality LQO

  • electrical measurement
    performed at electrical interfaces only. In order to predict the listening quality as perceived by the user, assumptions for the terminals are made in terms of intermediate reference system (IRS) or corrected IRS frequency response. A sealed condition between the handset receiver and the user’s ear is assumed.
  • acoustical measurement
    performed at acoustical interfaces. In order to predict the listening quality as perceived by the user, this measurement includes the actual telephone set products provided by the manufacturer or vendor. In combination with the choice of the acoustical receiver in the laboratory test , there will be a more or less leaky condition between the handset’s receiver and the artificial ear.

Conversational Quality / CQ

Arithmetic mean value of subjective judgments on a 5-point ACR quality scale, is calculated.
Talking Quality / TQ

This describes the quality of a telephone call as it is perceived by the talking party only. Factors affecting TQ include echo signal , background noise , double talk etc. It is calculated based on the arithmetic mean value of judgments on a 5-point ACR quality scale.

Video Quality / VQ

To account for differentiation in perceived quality for mobile and fixed devices and to allow for proper handling of different use-cases as
– M for mobile screen such as a smartphone or tablet (approximately 25 cm or less)
– T for PC/TV monitors
It is calculated based on the arithmetic mean value of subjective judgments, typically on a 5-point quality scale

Audio Visual Quality / AVQ

Refers to quality of audio visual stream under corresponding networking conditions. It is also calculated based on the arithmetic mean value of judgments on a 5-point ACR quality scale.

Other parameters also contributing to VoIP metric Analysis

Latency

It is the time required for packets to travel from one end to another, in milliseconds.
If the sum of measured latency is 800 ms and the number of latency samples is 20, then the average latency is 40 ms.
Header of the RTP packets carry timestamps which later can also be used to calculate round-trip time.

Packet Loss

packet loss percentage performed per RFC 3550 using RTP header sequence numbers.

Jitter

The variation in the delay of received packets in a flow, measured by comparing the interval when RTP packets were sent to the interval at which they were received.
For instance, if packet #1 and packet #2 leave 30 milliseconds apart and arrive 50 milliseconds apart, then the jitter is 20 milliseconds.

Ref : ITU P.800.1 : Mean opinion score (MOS) terminology 

Methods for objective and subjective assessment of speech and video quality.

Mapping R-value to calculate MOS

To map MOS from R value using above defined metrics , a standard formula is used. First the latency and jitter are added and defined value for computation time is also added , resulting in effective latency

effectiveLatency = latency + jitter * latencyImpact + compTime

Subtracting effective latency from defined R

R = 93 – (effectiveLatency / factorLatencyBased)

Calculate percentage of packet loss

 R = R – (lostPackets * impact)
 MOS = ( (R - 60) * (100 – R) * 0.000007R) + 0.035R + 1)

RTP engine on kamailio SIP server

This article focuses on setting up sipwise rtpegine to proxy rtp traffic from kamailio app server. This is an updated version of the the old article .

RTPengine is a proxy for RTP traffic and other UDP based media traffic over either IPv4 or IPv6. It can even bridge between diff IP networks and interfaces . It can do TOS/QoS field setting. It is Multi-threaded , can advertise different addresses for operation behind NAT.

It bears in-kernel packet forwarding for low-latency and low-CPU performance .

When used with kamailio RTP engine module it adds more features . I wrote an article covering all relevant and important kamailio modules earlier including RTPProxy and RTP engine ;https://telecom.altanai.com/2014/11/18/kamailio-modules/.

  • Full SDP parsing and rewriting
  • Supports non-standard RTCP ports (RFC 3605)
  • ICE (RFC 5245):
    • Bridging between ICE-enabled and ICE-unaware user agents
    • Optionally acting only as additional ICE relay/candidate
    • Optionally forcing relay of media streams by removing other ICE candidates
  • SRTP (RFC 3711):
    • Support for SDES (RFC 4568) and DTLS-SRTP (RFC 5764)
    • AES-CM and AES-F8 ciphers, both in userspace and in kernel
    • HMAC-SHA1 packet authentication
    • Bridging between RTP and SRTP user agents
  • RTCP profile with feedback extensions (RTP/AVPF, RFC 4585 and 5124)
  • Arbitrary bridging between any of the supported RTP profiles (RTP/AVP, RTP/AVPF, RTP/SAVP, RTP/SAVPF)
  • RTP/RTCP multiplexing (RFC 5761) and demultiplexing
  • Breaking of BUNDLE’d media streams (draft-ietf-mmusic-sdp-bundle-negotiation)
  • Recording of media streams, decrypted if possible
  • Transcoding and repacketization
  • Playback of pre-recorded streams/announcements

Sipwise NGCP RTP Engine Source Code

There are 3 parts of the source structure in sipwise NGCP ( Next Generation communication Platform) rtpengine :

1.daemon

The userspace daemon and workhorse, minimum requirement for anything to work. Running make will compile the binary, which will be called rtpengine.

Required packages including their development headers are required to compile the daemon:

  • pkg-config
  • GLib including GThread and GLib-JSON version 2.x
  • zlib
  • OpenSSL
  • PCRE library
  • XMLRPC-C version 1.16.08 or higher
  • hiredis library
  • gperf
  • libcurl version 3.x or 4.x
  • libevent version 2.x
  • libpcap
  • libsystemd
  • MySQL or MariaDB client library (optional for media playback and call recording daemon)
  • libiptc library for iptables management (optional)
  • ffmpeg codec libraries for transcoding (optional) such as libavcodec, libavfilter, libswresample
  • bcg729 for full G.729 transcoding support (optional)

options for make – with_iptables_option , with_transcoding

 with_transcoding=no make 

2.iptables-extension

Required for in-kernel packet forwarding. With the iptables development headers installed, issuing make will compile the plugin for iptables and ip6tables. The file will be called libxt_RTPENGINE.so and needs to be copied into the xtables module directory. The location of this directory can be determined through pkg-config xtables –variable=xtlibdir on newer systems, and/or is usually either /lib/xtables/ or /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/xtables/.

3.kernel-module

Required for in-kernel packet forwarding. Compilation of the kernel module requires the kernel development headers to be installed in/lib/modules/$VERSION/build/, where $VERSION is the output of the command uname -r.

Successful compilation of the module will produce the file xt_RTPENGINE.ko. The module can be inserted into the running kernel manually through insmod xt_RTPENGINE.ko

It is recommended to copy the module into /lib/modules/$VERSION/updates/, followed by running depmod -a.

After this, the module can be loaded by issuing modprobe xt_RTPENGINE.

Installation

Follow instructions on https://gist.github.com/altanai/0d8cadbe6876d545fd63d6b3e79dcf73

Requirements

sudo su 
apt-get install debhelper iptables-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev libglib2.0-dev  libjson-glib-dev libxmlrpc-core-c3-dev libhiredis-dev build-essential:native
for pcap
apt install ibpcap-dev

some ffmpeg pakages like

apt install libavcodec-dev libavfilter-dev libavformat-dev libavresample-dev  libavutil-dev

for dpkg

libcrypt-openssl-rsa-perl libdigest-crc-perl libio-multiplex-perl libnet-interface-perl libsystemd-dev markdown

for debhelper>10

vi /etc/apt/sources.list

add line

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
sudo apt update

check version

apt-cache policy debhelper dh-autoreconf
debhelper:
Installed: 9.20160115ubuntu3
Candidate: 9.20160115ubuntu3
Version table:
10.2.2ubuntu1~ubuntu16.04.1 100
100 http://us-east-1.ec2.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports/main amd64 Packages
100 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports/main amd64 Packages
*** 9.20160115ubuntu3 500
500 http://us-east-1.ec2.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages
100 /var/lib/dpkg/status
dh-autoreconf:
Installed: (none)
Candidate: 11
Version table:
12~ubuntu16.04.1 100
100 http://us-east-1.ec2.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports/main amd64 Packages
100 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports/main amd64 Packages
11 500
500 http://us-east-1.ec2.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages

Force installing the version from backports repo as it have low priority.

sudo apt install dh-autoreconf=12~ubuntu16.04.1 debhelper=10.2.2ubuntu1~ubuntu16.04.1

so now new priority will be

debhelper:

  Installed: 10.2.2ubuntu1~ubuntu16.04.1
  Candidate: 10.2.2ubuntu1~ubuntu16.04.1
  Version table:
 *** 10.2.2ubuntu1~ubuntu16.04.1 100
        100 http://us-east-1.ec2.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports/main amd64 Packages
        100 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports/main amd64 Packages
        100 /var/lib/dpkg/status
     9.20160115ubuntu3 500
        500 http://us-east-1.ec2.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages
dh-autoreconf:
  Installed: 12~ubuntu16.04.1
  Candidate: 12~ubuntu16.04.1
  Version table:
 *** 12~ubuntu16.04.1 100
        100 http://us-east-1.ec2.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports/main amd64 Packages
        100 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports/main amd64 Packages
        100 /var/lib/dpkg/status
     11 500
        500 http://us-east-1.ec2.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages

ref :https://askubuntu.com/questions/863221/need-help-building-debhelper-10-2-2-bpo8-from-source

Get sourcecode

cd /usr/local/src
git clone https://github.com/sipwise/rtpengine.git
cd rtpengine
 ./debian/flavors/no_ngcp

use dpkg-checkbuilddeps to find any missing dependices

For missing dependencies

dpkg-checkbuilddeps: error: Unmet build dependencies: libbcg729-dev
remove the encoder for G.729 which is not supported by ffmoeg by exporting varible

export DEB_BUILD_PROFILES="pkg.ngcp-rtpengine.nobcg729"

Ref :ref : https://github.com/sipwise/rtpengine#g729-support

for defaultlibmysqlclient-dev and libiptc-dev

vi debian/control
change from default-libmysqlclient-dev to libmysqlclient-dev, change from libiptcdata-dev to libiptc-dev and install the alternatives such as

apt install libmysqlclient-dev libiptcdata-dev 

Generated deb files should be outside the rtpegine home folder

generated ngcp-rtpegine deb files
cd ..
dpkg -i ngcp-rtpengine-daemon_7.3.0.0+0~mr7.3.0.0_amd64.deb
dpkg -i ngcp-rtpengine-iptables_7.3.0.0+0~mr7.3.0.0_amd64.deb
dpkg -i ngcp-rtpengine-kernel-dkms_7.3.0.0+0~mr7.3.0.0_all.deb
dpkg -i ngcp-rtpengine-kernel-source_7.3.0.0+0~mr7.3.0.0_all.deb
dpkg -i ngcp-rtpengine-recording-daemon_7.3.0.0+0~mr7.3.0.0_amd64.deb
dpkg -i ngcp-rtpengine-utils_7.3.0.0+0~mr7.3.0.0_all.deb
dpkg -i ngcp-rtpengine_7.3.0.0+0~mr7.3.0.0_all.deb
After depackaging

Manual installation and running all test cases

cd rtpengine
make check

If you dont find a package you are looking for , some alternatives are to do apt-cache search like

apt-cache search libavfilter
libavfilter-dev - FFmpeg library containing media filters - development files
libavfilter-ffmpeg5 - FFmpeg library containing media filters - runtime files

or to search in ubuntu packages web https://packages.ubuntu.com/

Running RTPEngine

rtpegine application options

  • -v, –version Print build time and exit
  • –config-file=FILE Load config from this file
  • –config-section=STRING Config file section to use
  • –log-facility=daemon|local0|…|local7 Syslog facility to use for logging
  • -L, –log-level=INT Mask log priorities above this level
  • -E, –log-stderr Log on stderr instead of syslog
  • –no-log-timestamps Drop timestamps from log lines to stderr
  • –log-mark-prefix Prefix for sensitive log info
  • –log-mark-suffix Suffix for sensitive log info
  • -p, –pidfile=FILE Write PID to file
  • -f, –foreground Don’t fork to background
  • -t, –table=INT Kernel table to use
  • -F, –no-fallback Only start when kernel module is available
  • -i, –interface=[NAME/]IP[!IP] Local interface for RTP
  • -k, –subscribe-keyspace=INT INT … Subscription keyspace list
  • -l, –listen-tcp=[IP:]PORT TCP port to listen on
  • -u, –listen-udp=[IP46|HOSTNAME:]PORT UDP port to listen on
  • -n, –listen-ng=[IP46|HOSTNAME:]PORT UDP port to listen on, NG protocol
  • -c, –listen-cli=[IP46|HOSTNAME:]PORT UDP port to listen on, CLI
  • -g, –graphite=IP46|HOSTNAME:PORT Address of the graphite server
  • -G, –graphite-interval=INT Graphite send interval in seconds
  • –graphite-prefix=STRING Prefix for graphite line
  • -T, –tos=INT Default TOS value to set on streams
  • –control-tos=INT Default TOS value to set on control-ng
  • -o, –timeout=SECS RTP timeout
  • -s, –silent-timeout=SECS RTP timeout for muted
  • -a, –final-timeout=SECS Call timeout
  • –offer-timeout=SECS Timeout for incomplete one-sided calls
  • -m, –port-min=INT Lowest port to use for RTP
  • -M, –port-max=INT Highest port to use for RTP
  • -r, –redis=[PW@]IP:PORT/INT Connect to Redis database
  • -w, –redis-write=[PW@]IP:PORT/INT Connect to Redis write database
  • –redis-num-threads=INT Number of Redis restore threads
  • –redis-expires=INT Expire time in seconds for redis keys
  • -q, –no-redis-required Start no matter of redis connection state
  • –redis-allowed-errors=INT Number of allowed errors before redis is temporarily disabled
  • –redis-disable-time=INT Number of seconds redis communication is disabled because of errors
  • –redis-cmd-timeout=INT Sets a timeout in milliseconds for redis commands
  • –redis-connect-timeout=INT Sets a timeout in milliseconds for redis connections
  • -b, –b2b-url=STRING XMLRPC URL of B2B UA
  • –log-facility-cdr=daemon|local0|…|local7 Syslog facility to use for logging CDRs
  • –log-facility-rtcp=daemon|local0|…|local7 Syslog facility to use for logging RTCP
  • –log-facility-dtmf=daemon|local0|…|local7 Syslog facility to use for logging DTMF
  • –log-format=default|parsable Log prefix format
  • -x, –xmlrpc-format=INT XMLRPC timeout request format to use. 0: SEMS DI, 1: call-id only, 2: Kamailio
  • –num-threads=INT Number of worker threads to create
  • –media-num-threads=INT Number of worker threads for media playback
  • -d, –delete-delay=INT Delay for deleting a session from memory.
  • –sip-source Use SIP source address by default
  • –dtls-passive Always prefer DTLS passive role
  • –max-sessions=INT Limit of maximum number of sessions
  • –max-load=FLOAT Reject new sessions if load averages exceeds this value
  • –max-cpu=FLOAT Reject new sessions if CPU usage (in percent) exceeds this value
  • –max-bandwidth=INT Reject new sessions if bandwidth usage (in bytes per second) exceeds this value
  • –homer=IP46|HOSTNAME:PORT Address of Homer server for RTCP stats
  • –homer-protocol=udp|tcp Transport protocol for Homer (default udp)
  • –homer-id=INT ‘Capture ID’ to use within the HEP protocol
  • –recording-dir=FILE Directory for storing pcap and metadata files
  • –recording-method=pcap|proc Strategy for call recording
  • –recording-format=raw|eth File format for stored pcap files
  • –iptables-chain=STRING Add explicit firewall rules to this iptables chain
  • –codecs Print a list of supported codecs and exit
  • –scheduling=default|none|fifo|rr|other|batch|idle Thread scheduling policy
  • –priority=INT Thread scheduling priority
  • –idle-scheduling=default|none|fifo|rr|other|batch|idle Idle thread scheduling policy
  • –idle-priority=INT Idle thread scheduling priority
  • –log-srtp-keys Log SRTP keys to error log
  • –mysql-host=HOST|IP MySQL host for stored media files
  • –mysql-port=INT MySQL port
  • –mysql-user=USERNAME MySQL connection credentials
  • –mysql-pass=PASSWORD MySQL connection credentials
  • –mysql-query=STRING MySQL select query
rtpengine --interface="10.10.10.10" --listen-ng=25061 --listen-cli=25062 --foreground --log-stderr --listen-udp=25060 --listen-tcp=25060

In-Kernal Packet Forwarding

To avoid the overhead involved in processing each individual RTP packet in userspace-only operation, especially as RTP traffic consists of many small packets at high rates, rtpengine provides a kernel module to offload the bulk of the packet forwarding duties from user space to kernel space. This also results in increasing the number of concurrent calls as CPU usage decreases.In-kernel packet forwarding is implemented as an iptables module (x_tables) and has 2 parts – xt_RTPENGINE and plugin to the iptables and ip6tables command-line utilities

Sequence of events for a newly established media stream is then:

  1. Kamailio as SIP proxy controls rtpengine and signals it about a newly established call.
  2. Rtpengine daemon allocates local UDP ports and sets up preliminary forward rules based on the info received from the SIP proxy.
  3. An RTP packet is received on the local port.
  4. It traverses the iptables chains and gets passed to the xt_RTPENGINE module.
  5. The module doesn’t recognize it as belonging to an established stream and thus ignores it.
  6. The packet continues normal processing and eventually ends up in the daemon’s receive queue.
  7. The daemon reads it, processes it and forwards it. It also updates some internal data.
  8. This userspace-only processing and forwarding continues for a little while, during which time information about additional streams and/or endpoints may be obtained from the SIP proxy.
  9. After a few seconds, when the daemon is satisfied with what it has learned about the media endpoints, it pushes the forwarding rules to the kernel.
  10. From this moment on, the kernel module will recognize incoming packets belonging to those streams and will forward them on its own. It will stop those packets from traversing the network stacks any further, so the daemon will not see them any more on its receive queues.
  11. In-kernel forwarding is allowed to cease to work at any given time, either accidentally (e.g. by removal of the iptablesrule) or deliberatly (the daemon will do so in case of a re-invite), in which case forwarding falls back to userspace-only operation.

The Kernel Module

The kernel module supports multiple forwarding tables, identified through their ID number , bydefault 0 to 63

Each running instance of the rtpengine daemon controls one such table. To load use

modprobe xt_RTPENGINE and to unload rmmod xt_RTPENGINE,. With the module loaded, a new directory will appear in /proc/, namely /proc/rtpengine/ , containing pseudo-files, control ( to create and delete forwarding tables) and list ( list of currently active forwarding tables)

To manually create a forwarding table with ID 33, the following command can be used:

echo ‘add 43’ > /proc/rtpengine/control

The iptables module

In order for the kernel module to be able to actually forward packets, an iptables rule must be set up to send packets into the module. Each such rule is associated with one forwarding table. In the simplest case, for forwarding table 33, this can be done through:

iptables -I INPUT -p udp -j RTPENGINE –id 33

To restrict the rules to the UDP port range used by rtpengine, e.g. by supplying a parameter like –dport 30000:40000. If the kernel module receives a packet that it doesn’t recognize as belonging to an active media stream, it will simply ignore it and hand it back to the network stack for normal processing.

A typical start-up sequence including in-kernel forwarding might look like this:

modprobe xt_RTPENGINE
iptables -I INPUT -p udp -j RTPENGINE --id 0
ip6tables -I INPUT -p udp -j RTPENGINE --id 0

ensure that the table we want to use doesn’t exist – usually needed after a daemon restart, otherwise will error

echo 'del 0' > /proc/rtpengine/control

start daemon

/usr/sbin/rtpengine --table=0 --interface=10.64.73.31 --interface=2001:db8::4f3:3d \
--listen-ng=127.0.0.1:2223 --tos=184 --pidfile=/run/rtpengine.pid --no-fallback

Running Multiple Instances

To run multiple instances of rtpengine on the same machine run multiple instances of the daemon using different command-line options ( local addresses and listening ports), together with multiple different kernel forwarding tables.

For example, if one local network interface has address 10.64.73.31 and another has address 192.168.65.73, then the start-up sequence might look like this:

modprobe xt_RTPENGINE
iptables -I INPUT -p udp -d 10.64.73.31 -j RTPENGINE --id 0
iptables -I INPUT -p udp -d 192.168.65.73 -j RTPENGINE --id 1
echo 'del 0' > /proc/rtpengine/control
echo 'del 1' > /proc/rtpengine/control
/usr/sbin/rtpengine --table=0 --interface=<ip> \
--listen-ng=127.0.0.1:2223 --tos=184 --pidfile=/run/rtpengine-10.pid --no-fallback
/usr/sbin/rtpengine --table=1 --interface=<ip_pvy>\
--listen-ng=127.0.0.1:2224 --tos=184 --pidfile=/run/rtpengine-192.pid --no-fallback

With this setup, the SIP proxy can choose which instance of rtpengine to talk to and thus which local interface to use by sending its control messages to either port 2223 or port 2224.

Transcoding

Currently transcoding is supported for audio streams. Can we turned off with with_transcoding=no option in makeFile

Normally rtpengine leaves codec negotiation up to the clients involved in the call and does not interfere. In this case, if the clients fail to agree on a codec, the call will fail.

transcoding options in the ng control protocol,  transcode or ptime . If a codec is requested via the transcode option that was not originally offered, transcoding will be engaged for that call. With transcoding active for a call, all unsupported codecs will be removed from the SDP.

Transcoding happens in userspace only, so in-kernel packet forwarding will not be available for transcoded codecs. Codecs that are supported by both sides will simply be passed through transparently (unless repacketization is active). In-kernel packet forwarding will still be available for these codecs.

codecs supported by rtpengine can be shown with –codecs options

  • rtpengine –codecs
  • PCMA: fully supported
  • PCMU: fully supported
  • G723: fully supported
  • G722: fully supported
  • QCELP: supported for decoding only
  • G729: supported for decoding only
  • speex: fully supported
  • GSM: fully supported
  • iLBC: not supported
  • opus: fully supported
  • vorbis: codec supported but lacks RTP definition
  • ac3: codec supported but lacks RTP definition
  • eac3: codec supported but lacks RTP definition
  • ATRAC3: supported for decoding only
  • ATRAC-X: supported for decoding only
  • AMR: supported for decoding only
  • AMR-WB: supported for decoding only
  • PCM-S16LE: codec supported but lacks RTP definition
  • PCM-U8: codec supported but lacks RTP definition
  • MP3: codec supported but lacks RTP definition

ng Control Protocol

advanced control protocol to pass SDP body from the SIP proxy to the rtpengine daemon, has the body rewritten in the daemon, and then pas back to the SIP proxy to embed into the SIP message. It is  based on the bencode standard and runs over UDP transport.

Each message passed between the SIP proxy and the media proxy contains of two parts: message cookie ( to match requests to responses, and retransmission detection) and bencoded dictionary

The dictionary of each request must contain at least one key called command and corresponding value must be a string and determines the type of message. Currently the following commands are defined:

  • ping
  • offer
  • answer
  • delete
  • query
  • start recording
  • stop recording
  • block DTMF
  • unblock DTMF
  • block media
  • unblock media
  • start forwarding
  • stop forwarding
  • play media
  • stop media

The response dictionary must contain at least one key called result. The value can be either ok (optional key warning) or error( to be accompanied by error-reason ). For the ping command, the additional value pong is allowed.

rtpengine.sample.conf

[rtpengine]

table = 0
no-fallback = false
for userspace forwarding only:
table = -1

// separate multiple interfaces with semicolons:
interface = internal/12.23.34.45;external/23.34.45.54

listen-ng = 127.0.0.1:2223
listen-tcp = 25060
listen-udp = 12222

timeout = 60
silent-timeout = 3600
tos = 184
control-tos = 184
delete-delay = 30
final-timeout = 10800

foreground = false
pidfile = /run/ngcp-rtpengine-daemon.pid
num-threads = 16

port-min = 30000
port-max = 40000
max-sessions = 5000

recording-dir = /var/spool/rtpengine
recording-method = proc
recording-format = raw

redis = 127.0.0.1:6379/5
redis-write = password@x.x.x.x:6379/42
redis-num-threads = 8
no-redis-required = false
redis-expires = 86400
redis-allowed-errors = -1
redis-disable-time = 10
redis-cmd-timeout = 0
redis-connect-timeout = 1000

b2b-url = http://127.0.0.1:8090/
xmlrpc-format = 0

log-level = 6
log-stderr = false
log-facility = daemon
log-facility-cdr = local0
log-facility-rtcp = local1

graphite = 127.0.0.1:9006
graphite-interval = 60
graphite-prefix = foobar.

homer = 123.234.345.456:65432
homer-protocol = udp
homer-id = 2001

sip-source = false
dtls-passive = false

To start the ngcp-rtpengine-daemon service

/etc/init.d/ngcp-rtpengine-daemon start
[ ok ] Starting ngcp-rtpengine-daemon (via systemctl): ngcp-rtpengine-daemon.service.

checking status ngcp-rtpengine-daemonservice

# systemctl status ngcp-rtpengine-daemon.service

● ngcp-rtpengine-daemon.service - NGCP RTP/media Proxy Daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/ngcp-rtpengine-daemon.service; disabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2019-04-11 10:16:20 UTC; 24s ago
  Process: 13751 ExecStopPost=/usr/sbin/ngcp-rtpengine-iptables-setup stop (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 13797 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/ngcp-rtpengine-iptables-setup start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 13814 (rtpengine)
    Tasks: 19
   Memory: 10.5M
      CPU: 102ms
   CGroup: /system.slice/ngcp-rtpengine-daemon.service
           └─13814 /usr/sbin/rtpengine -f -E --no-log-timestamps --pidfile /run/ngcp-rtpengine-daemon.pid --config-file /etc/rtpengine/rtpengine.conf --table 0

To start recording service

/etc/init.d/ngcp-rtpengine-recording-daemon start

RTP engine receives command offer

Received command 'offer' from :53888
Dump for 'offer' from :53888: {  
    "sdp":"v=0 
 o=- 1554978148897419 1 IN IP4 pvt_ip 
 s=Bria 3 release 3.5.5 stamp 71243 
 c=IN IP4 192.168.1.23 
 t=0 0 
 m=audio 50754 RTP/AVP 0 98 101 
 a=rtpmap:98 ILBC/8000 
 a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000 
 a=fmtp:101 0-15 
 a=sendrecv 
 ",
    "ICE":"remove",
    "record-call":"yes",
    "direction":[  
       "internal",
       "internal"
    ],
    "flags":[  
       "no-rtcp-attribute"
    ],
    "replace":[  
       "origin",
       "session-connection"
    ],
    "transport-protocol":"RTP/AVP",
    "call-id":"732597d6-6d96-485b-b6dc-7d93703c1405",
    "received-from":[  
       "IP4",
       ""
Creating new call
Turning on call recording.
Wrote metadata file to temporary path: /var/spool/rtpengine/tmp/
...

RTP engine receives command delete

Received command 'delete' from :57304
 Dump for 'delete' from :57304: { "call-id": "732597d6-6d96-485b-b6dc-7d93703c1405", "received-from": [ "IP4", "" ], "from-tag": "cb8a1e30", "command": "delete" }
Deleting call branch 'cb8a1e30' (via-branch '')
Call branch 'cb8a1e30' (via-branch '') deleted, no more branches remaining
  Deleting entire call
 INFO: [ID="732597d6-6d96-485b-b6dc-7d93703c1405"]: Final packet stats:
 --- Tag 'cb8a1e30', created 0:05 ago for branch '', in dialogue with ''
 ------ Media #1 (audio over RTP/AVP) using unknown codec
 --------- Port   :10044 <&gt;    :50754, SSRC 0, 0 p, 0 b, 0 e, 5 ts
 freeing send_timer
 --------- Port   :10045 <&gt;    :50755 (RTCP), SSRC 0, 0 p, 0 b, 0 e, 5 ts
 freeing send_timer
 --- Tag '', created 0:05 ago for branch '', in dialogue with 'cb8a1e30'
 ------ Media #1 (audio over RTP/AVP) using unknown codec
--------- Port   :10032 <&gt;          (null):0    , SSRC 0, 0 p, 0 b, 0 e, 5 ts
freeing send_timer
--------- Port   :10033 <&gt;          (null):0     (RTCP), SSRC 0, 0 p, 0 b, 0 e, 5 ts
freeing send_timer
 rtpengine: ci=732597d6-6d96-485b-b6dc-7d93703c1405, created_from=:53888, 
 last_signal=1554978149, 
 tos=0, 
 ml0_start_time=1554978149.645290, 
 ml0_end_time=1554978154.822680, 
 ml0_duration=5.177390, 
 ml0_termination=REGULAR, 
 ml0_local_tag=cb8a1e30, 
 ml0_local_tag_type=FROM_TAG, 
...




sipP

SIPp is an opensource (GNU GPL license) performance testing tool for the SIP protocol and is widely used for Quality assurabce of callflows in voip applications for UAC / UASs cenarios. It can emulate functioing of a sip phone such as REGISTER , establishes and releases multiple calls with
the INVITE and BYE methods , send other SIP requests and wait for reponsesbased on dafult of custom xml scenario files .

Plus factor is the dynamic display of statistics about running tests (call rate, round trip delay, and message statistics),
periodic CSV statistics dumps, TCP and UDP over multiple sockets or multiplexed with retransmission management,
regular expressions and variables in scenario files, and dynamically adjustable call rates.

sipp -sn uac -d 10000 -s 9876543210 127.0.0.1:5060  -l 10

It is widley used as aperformnace and load testing tool since it can test SIP equipements like SIP proxies, B2BUAs, SIP media servers, SIP/x gateways, and SIP PBXes and can also emulate thousands of user agents calling your SIP system.

Installation

Pre-requisites to compile SIPp are:
– C++ Compiler
– curses or ncurses library
– For TLS support: OpenSSL >= 0.9.8
– For pcap play support: libpcap and libnet
– For SCTP support: lksctp-tools
– For distributed pauses: Gnu Scientific Libraries

Download , extract and build with options like

tar -xvzf sipp-xxx.tar.gz
cd sipp
./configure --with-sctp --with-pcap --with-openssl
make

Verify installation
Run sipp with embedded server (uas) scenario:

sipp -sn uas

On the same host, run sipp with embedded client (uac) scenario:

sipp -sn uac 127.0.0.1 -trace_msg -trace_err
output for server 
# sipp -sn uas
------------------------------ Scenario Screen -------- [1-9]: Change Screen --
Port Total-time Total-calls Transport
5060 32.95 s 61 UDP
0 new calls during 0.874 s period      1 ms scheduler resolution
19 calls Peak was 41 calls, after 28 s
0 Running, 63 Paused, 12 Woken up
0 dead call msg (discarded)
3 open sockets
                             Messages  Retrans   Timeout   Unexpected-Msg

----------> INVITE 61 0 0 0
<---------- 180 61 0 <---------- 200 61 0 0 ----------> ACK E-RTD1 61 0 0 0

----------> BYE 61 0 0 0
<---------- 200 61 0
[ 4000ms] Pause 61 0
------------------------------ Test Terminated --------------------------------
----------------------------- Statistics Screen ------- [1-9]: Change Screen --
Start Time | 2019-02-04 13:04:32.108663 1549265672.108663
Last Reset Time | 2019-02-04 13:05:04.189720 1549265704.189720
Current Time | 2019-02-04 13:05:05.065119 1549265705.065119
-------------------------+---------------------------+--------------------------
Counter Name | Periodic value | Cumulative value
-------------------------+---------------------------+--------------------------
Elapsed Time | 00:00:00:875000 | 00:00:32:956000
Call Rate | 0.000 cps | 1.851 cps
-------------------------+---------------------------+--------------------------
Incoming call created | 0 | 61
OutGoi

traceings

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.939148
UDP message sent (530 bytes):

INVITE sip:service@127.0.0.1:5060 SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-25-0
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag0025
To: service
Call-ID: 25-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: sip:sipp@192.x.x.x:5061
Max-Forwards: 70
Subject: Performance Test
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 135
v=0
o=user1 53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 192.x.x.x
s=-
c=IN IP4 192.x.x.x
t=0 0
m=audio 6004 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.939310
UDP message received [321] bytes :

SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-1-0
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag001
To: service ;tag=52416SIPpTag011
Call-ID: 1-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact:
Content-Length: 0

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.939905
UDP message received [486] bytes :

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-1-0
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag001
To: service ;tag=52416SIPpTag011
Call-ID: 1-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact:
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 135
v=0
o=user1 53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 192.x.x.x
s=-
c=IN IP4 192.x.x.x
t=0 0
m=audio 6000 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.940159
UDP message sent (371 bytes):

ACK sip:service@127.0.0.1:5060 SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-1-5
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag001
To: service ;tag=52416SIPpTag011
Call-ID: 1-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 1 ACK
Contact: sip:sipp@192.x.x.x:5061
Max-Forwards: 70
Subject: Performance Test
Content-Length: 0

~ RTP

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.941658
UDP message sent (371 bytes):

BYE sip:service@127.0.0.1:5060 SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-1-7
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag001
To: service ;tag=52416SIPpTag011
Call-ID: 1-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 2 BYE
Contact: sip:sipp@192.x.x.x:5061
Max-Forwards: 70
Subject: Performance Test
Content-Length: 0

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.952888
UDP message received [313] bytes :

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-1-7
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag001
To: service ;tag=52416SIPpTag011
Call-ID: 1-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 2 BYE
Contact:
Content-Length: 0

Time

---------------------------- Repartition Screen ------- [1-9]: Change Screen --
Average Response Time Repartition 1
0 ms <= n < 10 ms : 293 10 ms <= n < 20 ms : 9 20 ms <= n < 30 ms : 0 30 ms <= n < 40 ms : 0 40 ms <= n < 50 ms : 0 50 ms <= n < 100 ms : 0 100 ms <= n < 150 ms : 0 150 ms <= n < 200 ms : 0 n >= 200 ms : 0
Average Call Length Repartition
0 ms <= n < 10 ms : 0 10 ms <= n < 50 ms : 0 50 ms <= n < 100 ms : 0 100 ms <= n < 500 ms : 0 500 ms <= n < 1000 ms : 0 1000 ms <= n < 5000 ms : 262 5000 ms <= n < 10000 ms : 0 n >= 10000 ms : 0
------------------------------ Sipp Server Mode -------------------------------

Output for client

uac.xml
SIPp UAC Remote
|(1) INVITE |
|------------------>|
|(2) 100 (optional) |
|<------------------|
|(3) 180 (optional) |
|<------------------|
|(4) 200 |
|<------------------|
|(5) ACK |
|------------------>|
| |
|(6) PAUSE |
| |
|(7) BYE |
|------------------>|
|(8) 200 |
|<------------------|

sipp -sn uac 127.0.0.1 -trace_msg -trace_err
Resolving remote host ‘127.0.0.1’… Done.
—————————— Scenario Screen ——– [1-9]: Change Screen —
Call-rate(length) Port Total-time Total-calls Remote-host
10.0(0 ms)/1.000s 5061 17.32 s 98 127.0.0.1:5060(UDP)

3 new calls during 0.286 s period 1 ms scheduler resolution
0 calls (limit 30) Peak was 25 calls, after 10 s
0 Running, 101 Paused, 7 Woken up
0 dead call msg (discarded) 0 out-of-call msg (discarded)
3 open sockets

                             Messages  Retrans   Timeout   Unexpected-Msg
  INVITE ---------->         98        0         0                  
     100 <----------         0         0         0         0        
     180 <----------         98        0         0         0        
     183 <----------         0         0         0         0        
     200          98        0                            
   Pause [      0ms]         98                            0        
     BYE ---------->         98        0         0                  
     200 <----------         98        0         0         0        

—————————— Test Terminated ——————————–

----------------------------- Statistics Screen ------- [1-9]: Change Screen --
Start Time | 2019-02-04 13:08:03.908208 1549265883.908208
Last Reset Time | 2019-02-04 13:08:20.954289 1549265900.954289
Current Time | 2019-02-04 13:08:21.241152 1549265901.241152
-------------------------+---------------------------+--------------------------
Counter Name | Periodic value | Cumulative value
-------------------------+---------------------------+--------------------------
Elapsed Time | 00:00:00:286000 | 00:00:17:332000
Call Rate

Tracings

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.934840
UDP message received [527] bytes :

INVITE sip:service@127.0.0.1:5060 SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-1-0
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag001
To: service
Call-ID: 1-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: sip:sipp@192.x.x.x:5061
Max-Forwards: 70
Subject: Performance Test
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 135
v=0
o=user1 53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 192.x.x.x
s=-
c=IN IP4 192.x.x.x
t=0 0
m=audio 6004 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.936616
UDP message sent (321 bytes):

SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-1-0
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag001
To: service ;tag=52416SIPpTag011
Call-ID: 1-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact:
Content-Length: 0

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.937003
UDP message sent (486 bytes):

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-1-0
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag001
To: service ;tag=52416SIPpTag011
Call-ID: 1-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact:
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 135
v=0
o=user1 53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 192.x.x.x
s=-
c=IN IP4 192.x.x.x
t=0 0
m=audio 6000 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.948679
UDP message received [371] bytes :

ACK sip:service@127.0.0.1:5060 SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-1-5
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag001
To: service ;tag=52416SIPpTag011
Call-ID: 1-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 1 ACK
Contact: sip:sipp@192.x.x.x:5061
Max-Forwards: 70
Subject: Performance Test
Content-Length: 0

~ RTP

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.949168
UDP message received [371] bytes :

BYE sip:service@127.0.0.1:5060 SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-1-7
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag001
To: service ;tag=52416SIPpTag011
Call-ID: 1-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 2 BYE
Contact: sip:sipp@192.x.x.x:5061
Max-Forwards: 70
Subject: Performance Test
Content-Length: 0

———————————————– 2019-02-04 13:08:13.949245
UDP message sent (313 bytes):

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.x.x.x:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-52422-1-7
From: sipp ;tag=52422SIPpTag001
To: service ;tag=52416SIPpTag011
Call-ID: 1-52422@192.x.x.x
CSeq: 2 BYE
Contact:
Content-Length: 0

time

---------------------------- Repartition Screen ------- [1-9]: Change Screen --
Average Response Time Repartition 1
0 ms <= n < 10 ms : 657 10 ms <= n < 20 ms : 20 20 ms <= n < 30 ms : 0 30 ms <= n < 40 ms : 0 40 ms <= n < 50 ms : 0 50 ms <= n < 100 ms : 0 100 ms <= n < 150 ms : 0 150 ms <= n < 200 ms : 0 n >= 200 ms : 0
Average Call Length Repartition
0 ms <= n < 10 ms : 649 10 ms <= n < 50 ms : 28 50 ms <= n < 100 ms : 0 100 ms <= n < 500 ms : 0 500 ms <= n < 1000 ms : 0 1000 ms <= n < 5000 ms : 0 5000 ms <= n < 10000 ms : 0 n >= 10000 ms : 0
------ [+|-|*|/]: Adjust rate ---- [q]: Soft exit ---- [p]: Pause traffic -----

Last Error: Overload warning: the major watchdog timer 3000ms has been t…

Controlling sipp

  • [+|-|*|/]: Adjust rate
  • p Pause traffic
  • q Quit SIPp (after all calls complete, enter a second time to quit immediately)
  • Q Quit SIPp immediately s Dump screens to the log file (if -trace_screen is passed)

References :
https://media.readthedocs.org/pdf/sipp-wip/latest/sipp-wip.pdf

BlockChain programming

Blockchain is essentially a decentralized algorithm for distributed storage and processing , using a non immutable data structures and securing them with signatures and keys . These sequential chain of records called blocks , can contains almost anything from timestamped transactions , metadata , contracts , files etc just as long as they are chained using hash pointers to previous blocks  .

what is a hash ?

function f (x) = y , takes an i/o and give a determined o/p . example heaxadecimeal output of my name , md5(altanai bisht) = 2b9e76d57842ebafaf19fd33bb3573a3.

These are irreversible ie one cant find the i/p from o/p . For this u need to try every combination using brute force. Hence these are generally used for cross verification without revealing the information itself .

Who are miners ?

-tbd –

Application of block chain :

Market analysts and industry specialist have said that block-chain is a revolutionizing technology which will create a decentralized network for not just currency exchange but also many other aspects such as double spent problem , universal identities  , document management etc . Example : Bitcoin protocol , which contains a full record of every transaction ever executed with the currency at any time in past. It is also a solution to problem like black – money , double spending , tax evasions etc. Other areas include:

  • Decentralizing document keeping such as government records , digital assets , equity information , medical and health records etc . The system also provide data ownership and Intellectual property protection .
  • Fintech as AML( Anti money laundering) , eKYC ( Know Your customer )  , epay , loans, stock trading .
  • Smart contracts such as in ethereum . Allows to keep program code that would execute on an event.
  • Shared economy for a p2p payment system .
  • Crowdfunding , works on paradigm of  token owner’s voting and cooperation in decisions for crowd-sourced venture capital funds .
  • Micro payments / fractional concurrency for small amounts suits power selling and buying  such as on solar renewable power micro grid

Since a block chain is a ledger of facts shared across many peer nodes , all communication and inter node transaction uses the power of crypto to authenticate  each other and validate each others requests from the genesis block .

what is a genesis block ?

First block of blockchain which needs to be hard-coded into software . It is the only block which does not reference a previous block .

As any peer wants to add a fact to the ledger , a consensus needs to be obtained from the network. This way of network agreement ensures that fraudulent behavior is prevented .

Example : bitcoin’s genesis block

01000000 - version
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 - prev block
3BA3EDFD7A7B12B27AC72C3E67768F617FC81BC3888A51323A9FB8AA4B1E5E4A - merkle root
29AB5F49 - timestamp
FFFF001D - bits
1DAC2B7C - nonce
01 - number of transactions
01000000 - version
01 - input
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000FFFFFFFF - prev output
4D - script length
04FFFF001D0104455468652054696D65732030332F4A616E2F32303039204368616E63656C6C6F72206F6E206272696E6B206F66207365636F6E64206261696C6F757420666F722062616E6B73 - scriptsig
FFFFFFFF - sequence
01 - outputs
00F2052A01000000 - 50 BTC
43 - pk_script length
4104678AFDB0FE5548271967F1A67130B7105CD6A828E03909A67962E0EA1F61DEB649F6BC3F4CEF38C4F35504E51EC112DE5C384DF7BA0B8D578A4C702B6BF11D5FAC - pk_script
00000000 - lock time

 

Forks 

There is only one path from top block on chain to genesis root , however  there can many forks upwards from genesis block . It is so because blocks may be created within a short span of time or be  under processing . One of the two block will be added to main chain and other will be orphaned or added to pool of queued transactions or even be lost.

Steps to Programming a simple block-chain application :

Lets assume we are creating a block chain for call records.

callstatus block chain

Structure of a block which is an object which typically looks like

block = {
"index" :1,
"timestamp " :20-02-2017/10:00
"callstatus " : [ { caller : sip:john@domain.com" ,
callee : "alice@domain.com ",
active call time : 3:00
]},
"proof" : 23897897
"previous hash ":"9868768"
}

Blocks have an index , timestamp , transactions ( in our case call status such as outgoing or incoming calls ) and the hash link of previous block , which enables the chain formation ,

Create a class , blockchain , for member function and variables. Create functions as :

  1. init() : create a new chain and transaction object
  1. createNewTranscation( ) : this creates the information which needs to be fed into the next mined block  and returns the index of the new block which the transaction will be added to .

function createNewTranscation(_caller , _callee , _calltime ){

current_transaction.append({
caller : _caller ,
callee : _callee,
activeCallTime : _calltime
})

return lastBlock['index'] +1;

}

 

 

  1. createNewBlock() : at first we need to create a genesis block

  2. fetchLastBlock() ,

  3. boolean isBlockValid ( newBlock , oldBlock) – checks if the oldblocks index is sequentially aligned with new block and whether old blocks hash is equal to new blocks previous hash . Also calculates whether hash of new block is actually same as the supplied hash value in new block ( give  below) .

  4. hashBlock( block ) –  to create the hashes we need to add in block. Basically a SHA 256 hash of concatenated arguments as index, timestamp, message , previous hash and a nonce . example pseudo code :

 

Consensus Algorithms

All block-chains a\re deterministic state machines and transactions act upon them . Consensus filters out the invalid ones and reaches on agreement with valid ones.

DPOS (Delegated Proof of Stake)

A consensus algorithm used for electing producers and scheduling them in a fair and democratic way . It works on the simple principle that longest chain wins therefore incases of multiple forks or network disruption also , if an honest peer finds out a  valid strictly longer chain  , it will switch from its current fork to the longer chain. We assume that in all conditions ,  no other chain forked can be longer if 2/3 of producers are honest as 2/3 + 1 confirmations are required .

In crypto we trust !

Block chain is primarily 3 things : p2p network, public key cryptography and distributed consensus .

The security and accountability of such a system is managed via mass surveillance of transactions and cryptographic evidence. Ensures that blocks are always in chronological order  since meddling with the blocks will change the hash for preceding blocks

Asymmetric keys and digital signatures

Verification of block uses ECDSA ( Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm ) to ensure that tokens are spend by their rightful owners only.

An ellipsis is a derived from the second degree equation like ax^2 + bcy + cy^2 + dx + ey +f =0 . Depending on attributes this could be hyperbola , parabola or even a circle . However elliptic curve cryptography uses a third degree equation  from either a pseudo -random curve  ( such as over prime  fields y^2=x^3+ax+b or binary fields y^2 + xy = x^3 + ax^2 + b ) or a special curve .

 

what is ECDSA ?

There are 2 types of auth schemes : Symmetric , relying on shared secret key and Asymmetric relying on private public keys . ECDSA is a asymmetric authentication scheme where in addition to sender and receiver , even 3rd party systems can be authenticated .  In this the sender uses his private key to sign the message and receiver uses the senders public key to verify the message’s signature .

ECDSA signature

Difficulty 

While publishing a block with pending facts  to be appended to a chain , the owner sends it to other nodes for confirmation on its validity. Once its approved , other nodes called miners add it to their copy of chains. However the new block has to be published after fixed time interval for fraud prevention ( example :  bitcoin blocks are published every 10 mins on avg ) .  This duration is dynamically recalculated as the network miners grow or shrink . A difficulty is a number metric that represents how difficult is it to find a hash for given target.

  • To force increase time for calculating the matching hash  , difficulty is increased for miners work harder and take longer to earn the block reward .
  • While  in case of  less miner participation , the block difficulty level is made lower

Ref :

 

SIP conferencing and Media Bridges

SIP is the most popular signalling protocol in VOIP ecosystem. It is most suited to a caller-callee scenario , yet however supporting scalable conferences on VOIP is a market demand. It is desired that SIP must for multimedia stream but also provide conference control for building communication and collaboration apps for new and customisable solutions.

Role of SIP in conference involves

  • initiating confs
  • inviting participants
  • enabling them to join conf
  • leave conf
  • terminate conf
  • expel participants
  • configure media flow
  • control activities in conf

Centralised vs Mesh signalling for Multi participant conf

In a Centralised signalling model , all communication flows via a centralised control point

In a decentralised or mesh signalling structure , participants can communicate p2p

Unicast vs Multicast Media Distribution

Decentralised Media , Multi unicast streaming

Decentralised media , Multicast

Centralised Media / MCU

Conference types

1. Bridge

Centralised entity to book conf , start conf , leave conf . Therefore single point of failure potentially .

To create conf : conf created on a bridge URL , bridge registers on SIP Server, participants join the conf on the bridge using INVITES

To stop conf : either participant can Leave with BYE or conf can terminate by sending BYE to all

2. Endpoints as Mixer

Endpoints handle stream , decentralised media , therefore adhoc suited

mixer UAs cannot leave untill conf finishes

3. Mesh

coplex and more processing power on each UA required

no single point of failure but endpoints have to handle NATIng

Gstreamer

GStreamer ( LGPL )ia a media handling library written in C for applicatioan such as streaming , recording, playback , mixing and editing attributes etc. Even enhnaced applicaiosn such as tsrancoding , media ormat conversion , streaming servers for embeeded devices ( read more about Gstreamer in RPi in my srticle here).
It encompases various codecs, filters and is modular with plugins developement to enhance its capabilities. Media Streaming application developers use it as part of their framework at either the broadcaster’s end or as media player.

gst-launch-1.0 videotestsrc ! videoconvert ! autovideosink

To list all packages of Gstreamer

pkg-config --list-all | grep gstreamer
  • gstreamer-gl-1.0 GStreamer OpenGL Plugins Libraries – Streaming media framework, OpenGL plugins libraries
  • gstreamer-bad-video-1.0GStreamer bad video library – Bad video library for GStreamer elementsgstreamer-tag-1.0 GStreamer Tag Library – Tag base classes and helper functionsgstreamer-bad-base-1.0 GStreamer bad base classes – Bad base classes for GStreamer elements
  • gstreamer-net-1.0GStreamer networking library – Network-enabled GStreamer plug-ins and clockinggstreamer-sdp-1.0 GStreamer SDP Library – SDP helper functions
  • gstreamer-1.0 GStreamer – Streaming media framework
  • gstreamer-bad-audio-1.0 GStreamer bad audio library, uninstalled – Bad audio library for GStreamer elements, Not Installedgstreamer-allocators-1.0 GStreamer Allocators Library – Allocators implementation
  • gstreamer-player-1.0 GStreamer Player – GStreamer Player convenience library
  • gstreamer-insertbin-1.0 GStreamer Insert Bin – Bin to automatically and insertally link elements
  • gstreamer-plugins-base-1.0 GStreamer Base Plugins Libraries – Streaming media framework, base plugins libraries
  • gstreamer-vaapi-glx-1.0 GStreamer VA-API (GLX) Plugins Libraries – Streaming media framework, VA-API (GLX) plugins librariesgstreamer-codecparsers-1.0 GStreamer codec parsers – Bitstream parsers for GStreamer elementsgstreamer-base-1.0 GStreamer base classes – Base classes for GStreamer elements
  • gstreamer-app-1.0 GStreamer Application Library – Helper functions and base classes for application integration
  • gstreamer-vaapi-drm-1.0 GStreamer VA-API (DRM) Plugins Libraries – Streaming media framework, VA-API (DRM) plugins librariesgstreamer-check-1.0 GStreamer check unit testing – Unit testing helper library for GStreamer modules
  • gstreamer-vaapi-1.0 GStreamer VA-API Plugins Libraries – Streaming media framework, VA-API plugins libraries
  • gstreamer-controller-1.0 GStreamer controller – Dynamic parameter control for GStreamer elements
  • gstreamer-video-1.0 GStreamer Video Library – Video base classes and helper functions
  • gstreamer-vaapi-wayland-1.0 GStreamer VA-API (Wayland) Plugins Libraries – Streaming media framework, VA-API (Wayland) plugins libraries
  • gstreamer-fft-1.0 GStreamer FFT Library – FFT implementation
  • gstreamer-mpegts-1.0 GStreamer MPEG-TS – GStreamer MPEG-TS support
  • gstreamer-pbutils-1.0 GStreamer Base Utils Library – General utility functions
  • gstreamer-vaapi-x11-1.0 GStreamer VA-API (X11) Plugins Libraries – Streaming media framework, VA-API (X11) plugins libraries
  • gstreamer-rtp-1.0 GStreamer RTP Library – RTP base classes and helper functions
  • gstreamer-rtsp-1.0 GStreamer RTSP Library – RTSP base classes and helper functions
  • gstreamer-riff-1.0 GStreamer RIFF Library – RIFF helper functions
  • gstreamer-audio-1.0 GStreamer Audio library – Audio helper functions and base classes
  • gstreamer-plugins-bad-1.0 GStreamer Bad Plugin libraries – Streaming media framework, bad plugins libraries
  • gstreamer-rtsp-server-1.0 gst-rtsp-server – GStreamer based RTSP server

At the time of writing this article Gstreamer an much early version in 1.X , which was newer than its then stable version 0.x. Since then the library has updated many fold. summarising release highlights for major versions as the blog was updated over time .

Gstreamer 1.8.0 – 24 March 2016

  • Features Hardware-accelerated zero-copy video decoding on Android
  • New video capture source for Android using the android.hardware.Camera API
  • Windows Media reverse playback support (ASF/WMV/WMA)
  • tracing system provides support for more sophisticated debugging tools
  • high-level GstPlayer playback convenience API
  • Initial support for the new Vulkan API
  • Improved Opus audio codec support: Support for more than two channels; MPEG-TS demuxer/muxer can handle Opus; sample-accurate encoding/decoding/transmuxing with Ogg, Matroska, ISOBMFF (Quicktime/MP4), and MPEG-TS as container; new codec utility functions for Opus header and caps handling in pbutils library. The Opus encoder/decoder elements were also moved to gst-plugins-base (from -bad), and the opus RTP depayloader/payloader to -good.
  • Asset proxy support in the GStreamer Editing Services

GStreamer 1.16.0 – 19 April 2019.

  • GStreamer WebRTC stack gained support for data channels for peer-to-peer communication based on SCTP, BUNDLE support, as well as support for multiple TURN servers.
  • AV1 video codec support for Matroska and QuickTime/MP4 containers and more configuration options and supported input formats for the AOMedia AV1 encoder
  • Closed Captions and other Ancillary Data in video
  • planar (non-interleaved) raw audio
  • GstVideoAggregator, compositor and OpenGL mixer elements are now in -base
  • New alternate fields interlace mode where each buffer carries a single field
  • WebM and Matroska ContentEncryption support in the Matroska demuxer
  • new WebKit WPE-based web browser source element
  • Video4Linux: HEVC encoding and decoding, JPEG encoding, and improved dmabuf import/export
  • Hardware-accelerated Nvidia video decoder gained support for VP8/VP9 decoding, whilst the encoder gained support for H.265/HEVC encoding.
  • Many improvements to the Intel Media SDK based hardware-accelerated video decoder and encoder plugin (msdk): dmabuf import/export for zero-copy integration with other components; VP9 decoding; 10-bit HEVC encoding; video post-processing (vpp) support including deinterlacing; and the video decoder now handles dynamic resolution changes.
  • ASS/SSA subtitle overlay renderer can now handle multiple subtitles that overlap in time and will show them on screen simultaneously
  • Meson build feature-complete (with the exception of plugin docs) and it is now the recommended build system on all platforms. The Autotools build is scheduled to be removed in the next cycle.
  • GStreamer Rust bindings and Rust plugins module
  • GStreamer Editing Services allows directly playing back serialized edit list with playbin or (uri)decodebin

Ref : https://gstreamer.freedesktop.org