Performance of WebRTC sites and electron apps


This post is about making performance enhancements to a WebRTC app so that they can be used in the area which requires sensitive data to be communicated, cannot afford downtime, fast response and low RTT, need to be secure enough to withstand and hacks and attacks.

WebRTC Clients

  1. Single-page applications (HTML5 + Js + CSS) on browser engine on OS
  2. Electron app 
    • Facebook Messenger, slack , twitch are some of the RTC based applications which have have electron clients as well.
  3. Web-view on mobile 
    • (-) doesn’t have advanced Webrtc API support eg, Media Recorder
  4. Native Applications on mobile OS( Android, iOS)
  5. Hybrid Applications (React Native)
  6. Embedded Device ( set-top box, IP camera, robots on raspberry pi)
    1. raw codecs libraries and gstt=reamer/FFmpeg script to create RTSP stream

Codecs weight

opus (111, minptime=10;useinbandfec=1)
VP8 (96)
frameWidth 640
frameHeight 480
framesPerSecond 30

DNS lookup Time

Services such as Pingdom (https://tools.pingdom.com/) or WebPageTest can quickly calculate your website’s DNS lookup times.

Load / sgtress testing for Caching and lookup times can be perfomed over tools such as LoadStorm , JMeter.

Alternatively use websoscket like setup inplace of non reusable TCP connection like HTTP or polling to set up signalling.

Bandwidth Estimation

Bandwidth can be estmated by

RTCP Receiver Reports which periodically summary to indicate packet loss rate and jitter etc from receiver.

a=rtcp-mux

TWCC (Transport Wide congestion Control ) calculates the intra-packet delays to estimate the Sender Side Bandwidth

a=rtcp-fb:96 transport-cc

REMB( Receiver Side Bandwidth Estimation) provide bandwidth estimation  by measuing the packet loss

  • used to configure the bitrate in video encoding
  • used to avoid congestion or slow media transmission
a=rtcp-fb:96 goog-remb

Best practices for WebRTC web clients

As a communication agent become a single HTML page driven client, a lot of authentication, heartbeat sync, web workers, signalling event-driven flow management resides on the same page along with the actual CPU consumption for the audio-video resources and media streams processing. This in turn can make the webpage heavy and many a time could result in a crash due to being ” unresponsive”.

Here are some my best to-dos for making sure the webrtc communication client page runs efficiently

Visual stability and CLS ( Cummulative Layout Shift)

CLS metrics measures the sum total of all individual layout shift scores for every unexpected layout shift that occurs during the entire lifespan of the page.

To have a good user interactionn experiences, the DOM elements should display as less movement as possible so that page appears stable . In the opposite case for a flickering page ( maybe due to notification DOM dynamically pushing the other layout elements ) it is difficult to precisely interact with the page elements such as buttons .

Minimize main thread work

The main thread is where a browser processes runs all the JavaScript in your page, as well as to perform layout, reflows, and garbage collection. therefore long js processes can block the thread and make the page unresponsive.

Deprication of XMLHTTP request on main thread

Reduce Javacsipt execution Time

Unoptimized JS code takes longer to execute and impacts network , parse-compileand memory cost.

If your JavaScript holds on to a lot of references, it can potentially consume a lot of memory. Pages appear janky or slow when they consume a lot of memory. Memory leaks can cause your page to freeze up completely.

Some effective tips to spedding up JS execution include

  • minifying and compressing code
  • Removing the unused code and console.logs
  • Apply caching to save lookup time

Cookies – Security vs persistent state

Cross-site request forgery (CSRF) attacks rely on the fact that cookies are attached to any request to a given origin, no matter who initiates the request.

While adding cookies we must ensure that if SameSite =None , the cookies must be secure

Set-Cookie: widget_session=abc123; SameSite=None; Secure

SameSite to Strict, your cookie will only be sent in a first-party context. In user terms, the cookie will only be sent if the site for the cookie matches the site currently shown in the browser’s URL bar. 

Set-Cookie: promo_shown=1; SameSite=Strict

You can test this behavior as of Chrome 76 by enabling chrome://flags/#cookies-without-same-site-must-be-secure and from Firefox 69 in about:config by setting network.cookie.sameSite.noneRequiresSecure.

Web Client Performance monitoring

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are used to evaluate the performance of a website . It is crticial that a webrtc web page must be light weight to acocmodate the signalling control stack javscript libs to be used for offer answer handling and communicating with the signaller on open sockets or long polling mechnism .

Lighthouse results

Lighthouse tab in chrome developer tools shows relavnat areas of imporevemnt on the webpage from performmace , Accesibility , Best Practices , Search Engine optimization and progressive Web App

Also shsows individual categories and comments

Time to render and Page load

Page attributes under Chrome developers control depicts the page load and redering time for every element includeing scripts and markup. Specifically it has

  • Time to Title
  • Time to render
  • Time to inetract

Networking attributes to be cofigured based on DNS mapping and host provider. These Can be evalutaed based on chrome developer tool reports

Task interaction time

Other page interaction crtiteria includes the frames their inetraction and timings for the same.

In the screenhosta ttcjed see the loading tasks which basically depcits the delay by dom elements under transitions owing to user interaction . This ideally should be minimum to keep the page responsive.

Page’s total memeory

measureMemory()

performance.measureUserAgentSpecificMemory

The above functions ( old and new ) estimates the memory usage of the entire web page

these calls can be used to correlate new JS code with the impact on memery and subsewuntly find if there are any memeory leaks. Can also use these memery metrics to do A/B testing .

Page weight and PRPL

Loading assests over CDN , minfying sripts and reducing over all weight of the page are good ways to keep the page light and active and prevent any chrome tab crashes.

PRPL expands to Push/preload , Render , PreCache , Lazy load

  • Render the initial route as soon as possible.
  • Pre-cache remaining assets.
  • Lazy load other routes and non-critical assets.

Preload is a declarative fetch request that tells the browser to request a resource as soon as possible. Hence should be used for crticial assests .

<link rel="preload" as="script" href="critical.js">

The non critical compoenents could then be loaded on async .

Lazy load must be used for large files like js paylaods which are costly to load. To send a smaller JavaScript payload that contains only the code needed when a user initially loads your application, split the entire bundle and lazy load chunks on demand.

Web Workers

Web Workers are a simple means for web content to run scripts in background threads.The Worker interface spawns real OS-level threads

By acting as a proxy, service workers can fetch assets directly from the cache rather than the server on repeat visits. 

Native Applications on mobile OS

Threads and Cores

Memeory

Network

CPU profiling

Energy consumption

References :


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