Wi‑Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance
family of radio technologies commonly used for wireless local area networking (WLAN) of devices.
Current and older Wifi standards
standards operate on varying frequencies, deliver different bandwidth, and support different numbers of channels.
802.11a – transmits at 5 GHz frequency band of the radio spectrum with 54 megabits of data per second.
uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) which splits that radio signal into several sub-signals before they reach a receiver to reduces interference.
802.11b – transmits at 2.4 GHz with speed of 11 megabits of data per second,
uses complementary code keying (CCK) modulation to improve speeds.
802.11g – transmits at 2.4 GHz but faster upto 54 megabits of data per second.
uses OFDM coding
802.11n – speeds 140 megabits per second
backward compatible with a, b and g.
can transmit up to four streams of data, each at a maximum of 150 megabits per second, but most routers only allow for two or three streams.
802.11ac – n on the 2.4 GHz band and ac on the 5 GHz band.
backward compatible with 802.11n and thus others
450 megabits per second on a single stream
allows for transmission on multiple spatial streams upo 8
called 5G WiFi because of its frequency band
Very High Throughput (VHT)
Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6 networks enable lower battery consumption in devices, making it a solid choice for any environment, including smart home and Internet of Things (IoT) uses.
- wireless access point (AP) allows wireless devices to connect to the wireless network.
takes the bandwidth coming from a router and stretches it so that many devices can go on the network from farther distances away.
give useful data about the devices on the network, provide proactive security, and serve many other practical purposes.
- Wireless routers are hardware devices that Internet service providers use to connect you to their cable or xDSL Internet network.
combines the networking functions of a wireless access point and a router.
- mobile hotspot – feature on smartphones with both tethered and untethered connections
share your wireless network connection with other devices
Wi-Fi operational range depends on factors such as the frequency band, radio power output, receiver sensitivity, antenna gain and antenna type as well as the modulation techniquea and propagation charestristics of the signal
Compared to cell phones and similar technology, Wi-Fi transmitters are low power devices. In general, the maximum amount of power that a Wi-Fi device can transmit is limited by local regulations, such as FCC Part 15 in the US. Equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) in the European Union is limited to 20 dBm (100 mW).
An access point compliant with either 802.11b or 802.11g, using the stock omnidirectional antenna might have a range of 100 m
- Wired Equivalent Privacy WEP
client connects to a WEP-protected network, the WEP key is added to some data to create an “initialization vector”/ IV
- WiFi Protected Access version 2 (WPA2)
successor to WEP and WPA
uses either TKIP or Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption
- WiFi Protected Setup (WPS)
ties a hard-coded PIN to the router for setup is vulnerabile for exploitation by hackers
Use the latest security methods , higher grader security protocls
Disallow outdated legacy protocols
Require use of Protected Management Frames (PMF)
increased protections from password guessing attempts
better password protection through Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE), which replaces Pre-shared Key (PSK) in WPA2-Personal.
192-bit minimum-strength security protocols and cryptographic tools
Authenticated encryption: 256-bit Galois/Counter Mode Protocol (GCMP-256)
Key derivation and confirmation: 384-bit Hashed Message Authentication Mode (HMAC) with Secure Hash Algorithm (HMAC-SHA384)
Key establishment and authentication: Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) exchange and Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) using a 384-bit elliptic curve
Robust management frame protection: 256-bit Broadcast/Multicast Integrity Protocol Galois Message Authentication Code (BIP-GMAC-256)